The prevalence of heart failure (HF) is approximately 1–2% of the adult population in developed countries, rising to ≥ 10% among people over 70. The common symptoms of HF include shortness of breath, ankle swelling and fatigue, determined by a reduced cardiac output. Multimodality imaging is crucial to define HF etiology, determine prognosis and guiding tailored treatments. Echocardiography is the most widely used imaging modality and maintains a pivotal role in the initial diagnostic work-up and in the follow-up of HF patients. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) may support the morpho-functional assessment provided by echocardiography when the acoustic window is limited or a gold standard evaluation is required. Furthermore, CMR is frequently used due to the unmatched capability to characterize myocardial structure. Coronary computed tomography angiography has become the non-invasive imaging of choice to diagnose or rule-out coronary artery disease, acquiring remarkable importance in the management of HF patients. Moreover, emerging capabilities of CT-based tissue characterization may be useful, especially when CMR is contraindicated. Finally, chest CT may contribute to precisely define the framework of HF patients, revealing new insight about cardiopulmonary pathophysiological interactions with potential high prognostic value.
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