In the last years, several evidences demonstrated the role of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in the oligometastatic disease and the possibility to increase survival in selected patients. In 2020 the study group “biology and treatment of the oligometastatic disease” of the Italian Association of Radiotherapy and Clinical Oncology (AIRO) conducted a survey evaluating the attitude of physicians in treating the oligometastatic disease and the definition of it. An electronic questionnaire was administered online to the society members. 105 questionnaires were returned. 78% responders considered as oligometastatic a disease with ≤ 5 metastases. The majority of the responders (77%) treated > 50 patients in the last year, and 89% responders agreed in considering every oligometastatic tumor susceptible to local treatments. Regarding the clinical management of the oligometastatic disease, the majority of the responders (66%) suggested an interdisciplinary discussion. When choosing a treatment option for fit patients with a single oligometastatic focus, 52% of the responders agreed in proposing only SBRT. In the case of unfit patients with a single oligometastatic lesion the agreement was in favor of the SBRT alone (89%). In the oligoprogressive setting, 41% responders opted to continue the current systemic treatment and to add SBRT, while in the case of oligoresidual disease, 70% responders was in favor of adding SBRT and continuing the current systemic treatment. In conclusions, the survey illustrated the current agreement and prescribing attitude for oligometastatic patients in Italy. The non-homogenous agreement in some clinical scenarios suggest the need of more robust evidence.
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