Background: Duodenal gastric metaplasia (DGM) is considered a precancerous lesion. No data are available regarding its possible role as a risk factor for duodenal neuroendocrine neoplasms (dNENs). Aims: To assess the prevalence of DGM in a cohort of dNENs. Methods: Subgroup analysis of a retrospective study including dNEN patients who underwent surgical resection between 2000 and 2019 and were observed at eight Italian tertiary referral centers. Results: 109 dNEN patients were evaluated. Signs of DGM associated with the presence of dNEN were reported in 14 patients (12.8%). Among these patients, nine (64.4%) had a dNEN of the superior part of the duodenum, one (7.1%) a periampullary lesion, three (21.4%) a dNEN located in the second portion of the duodenum, with a different localization distribution compared to patients without DGM (p = 0.0332). Ten were G1, three G2, and in one patient the Ki67 was not available. In the group with DGM, six patients (35.7%) were classified at stage I, five (28.6%) at stage II, three (21.4%) at stage III, and no one at stage IV. In the group without DGM, 20 patients (31%) were at stage I, 15 (15%) at stage II, 42 (44%) at stage III, and 19 (20%) at stage IV (p = 0.0236). At the end of the study, three patients died because of disease progression. Conclusions: our findings might suggest that DGM could represent a feature associated with the occurrence of dNEN, especially for forms of the superior part of the duodenum, which should be kept in mind in the endoscopic follow up of patients with DGM. Interestingly, dNEN inside DGM showed a more favorable staging, with no patients in stage IV. The actual relationship and the clinical relevance of this possible association require further clarification.
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