Purpose of Review The aim of this review was to discuss how to select patients with gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP-NENs) for surgery. Recent Findings Surgical resection represents the mainstay for the curative treatment of GEP-NENs. Conservative strategies, such as endoscopic resection and active surveillance, have been recently advocated for the management of patients with small and asymptomatic GEP-NENs. On the other hand, patients with GEP-NENs showing features of aggressiveness should be managed by surgical resection with lymphadenectomy, when the surgical risk is considered acceptable. An accurate selection is important also in the setting of advanced disease, where surgery can provide a survival benefit in the context of a multimodal treatment strategy. Surgical and oncological risk should be always assessed in order to define indications for surgery in patients with GEP-NENs. Given the variety of available treatment options, surgical indication should be always shared with a dedicated multidisciplinary team.
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