BackgroundA motley postacute symptomatology may develop after COVID-19, irrespective of the acute disease severity, age, and comorbidities. Frail individuals have reduced physiological reserves and manifested a worse COVID-19 course, during the acute setting. However, it is still unknown, whether frailty may subtend some long COVID-19 manifestations. We explored the prevalence of long COVID-19 disturbs in COVID-19 survivals. MethodsThis was an observational study. Patients aged 65 years or older were followed-up 1, 3, and 6 months after hospitalization for COVID-19 pneumonia. ResultsA total of 382 patients were enrolled. Frail patients were more malnourished (median Mini Nutritional Assessment Short Form score 8 vs. 9, p = 0.001), at higher risk of sarcopenia [median Strength, Assistance with walking, Rising from a chair, Climbing stairs, and Falls (SARC-F) score 3 vs. 1.5, p = 0.003], and manifested a worse physical performance [median Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) score 10 vs. 11, p = 0.0007] than robust individuals, after hospital discharge following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia. Frailty was significantly associated with: (i) confusion, as a presenting symptom of COVID-19 [odds ratio (OR) 77.84, 95% CI 4.23-1432.49, p = 0.003]; (ii) malnutrition (MNA-SF: adjusted B -5.63, 95% CI -8.39 to -2.87, p < 0.001), risk of sarcopenia (SARC-F: adjusted B 9.11, 95% CI 3.10-15.13, p = 0.003), impaired muscle performance (SPPB: B -3.47, 95% CI -6.33 to -0.61, p = 0.02), complaints in mobility (adjusted OR 1674200.27, 95% CI 4.52-619924741831.25, p = 0.03), in self-care (adjusted OR 553305.56, 95% CI 376.37-813413358.35, p < 0.001), and in performing usual activities of daily living (OR 71.57, 95% CI 2.87-1782.53, p = 0.009) at 1-month follow-up; (iii) dyspnea [modified Medical Research Council (mMRC): B 4.83, 95% CI 1.32-8.33, p = 0.007] and risk of sarcopenia (SARC-F: B 7.12, 95% CI 2.17-12.07, p = 0.005) at 3-month follow-up; and (iv) difficulties in self-care (OR 2746.89, 95% CI 6.44-1172310.83, p = 0.01) at the 6-month follow-up. In a subgroup of patients (78 individuals), the prevalence of frailty increased at the 1-month follow-up compared to baseline (p = 0.009). ConclusionThe precocious identification of frail COVID-19 survivors, who manifest more motor and respiratory complaints during the follow-up, could improve the long-term management of these COVID-19 sequelae.

Prevalence of Long COVID-19 Symptoms After Hospital Discharge in Frail and Robust Patients

Cilla, Marta;Cilona, Maria;Fici, Aldo;Merolla, Aurora;Pacioni, Giacomo;De Lorenzo, Rebecca;Gennaro Mazza, Mario;Benedetti, Francesco;Rovere Querini, Patrizia
2022

Abstract

BackgroundA motley postacute symptomatology may develop after COVID-19, irrespective of the acute disease severity, age, and comorbidities. Frail individuals have reduced physiological reserves and manifested a worse COVID-19 course, during the acute setting. However, it is still unknown, whether frailty may subtend some long COVID-19 manifestations. We explored the prevalence of long COVID-19 disturbs in COVID-19 survivals. MethodsThis was an observational study. Patients aged 65 years or older were followed-up 1, 3, and 6 months after hospitalization for COVID-19 pneumonia. ResultsA total of 382 patients were enrolled. Frail patients were more malnourished (median Mini Nutritional Assessment Short Form score 8 vs. 9, p = 0.001), at higher risk of sarcopenia [median Strength, Assistance with walking, Rising from a chair, Climbing stairs, and Falls (SARC-F) score 3 vs. 1.5, p = 0.003], and manifested a worse physical performance [median Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) score 10 vs. 11, p = 0.0007] than robust individuals, after hospital discharge following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia. Frailty was significantly associated with: (i) confusion, as a presenting symptom of COVID-19 [odds ratio (OR) 77.84, 95% CI 4.23-1432.49, p = 0.003]; (ii) malnutrition (MNA-SF: adjusted B -5.63, 95% CI -8.39 to -2.87, p < 0.001), risk of sarcopenia (SARC-F: adjusted B 9.11, 95% CI 3.10-15.13, p = 0.003), impaired muscle performance (SPPB: B -3.47, 95% CI -6.33 to -0.61, p = 0.02), complaints in mobility (adjusted OR 1674200.27, 95% CI 4.52-619924741831.25, p = 0.03), in self-care (adjusted OR 553305.56, 95% CI 376.37-813413358.35, p < 0.001), and in performing usual activities of daily living (OR 71.57, 95% CI 2.87-1782.53, p = 0.009) at 1-month follow-up; (iii) dyspnea [modified Medical Research Council (mMRC): B 4.83, 95% CI 1.32-8.33, p = 0.007] and risk of sarcopenia (SARC-F: B 7.12, 95% CI 2.17-12.07, p = 0.005) at 3-month follow-up; and (iv) difficulties in self-care (OR 2746.89, 95% CI 6.44-1172310.83, p = 0.01) at the 6-month follow-up. In a subgroup of patients (78 individuals), the prevalence of frailty increased at the 1-month follow-up compared to baseline (p = 0.009). ConclusionThe precocious identification of frail COVID-19 survivors, who manifest more motor and respiratory complaints during the follow-up, could improve the long-term management of these COVID-19 sequelae.
COVID-19
frailty
long COVID-19 syndrome
older people
prevalence
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11768/132113
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