Bone is a very dynamic tissue, subject to continuous renewal to maintain homeostasis through bone remodeling, a process promoted by two cell types: osteoblasts, of mesenchymal derivation, are responsible for the deposition of new material, and osteoclasts, which are hematopoietic cells, responsible for bone resorption. Osteomyelitis (OM) is an invasive infectious process, with several etiological agents, the most common being Staphylococcus aureus, affecting bone or bone marrow, and severely impairing bone homeostasis, resulting in osteolysis. One of the characteristic features of OM is a strong state of oxidative stress (OS) with severe consequences on the delicate balance between osteoblastogenesis and osteoclastogenesis. Here we describe this, analyzing the effects of OS in bone remodeling and discussing the need for new, easy-to-measure and widely available OS biomarkers that will provide valid support in the management of the disease.
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