Background: Male patients with COVID-19 have been found with reduced serum total testosterone (tT) levels and with more severe clinical outcomes. Objectives: To assess total testosterone (tT) levels and the probability of recovering eugonadal tT levels during a minimum 12-month timespan in a cohort of men who have been followed over time after the recovery from laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. Materials and methods: Demographic, clinical and hormonal values were collected for the overall cohort. Hypogonadism was defined as tT ≤9.2 nmol/l. The Charlson Comorbidity Index was used to score health-significant comorbidities. Descriptive statistics was used to compare hormonal levels at baseline versus 7-month (FU1) versus 12-month (FU2) follow-up, respectively. Multivariate cox proportional hazards regression model was used to identify the potential predictors of eugonadism recovery over time among patients with hypogonadism at the time of infection. Results: Of the original cohort of 286 patients, follow-up data were available for 121 (42.3%) at FU1 and 63 (22%) patients at FU2, respectively. Higher median interquartile range (IQR) tT levels were detected at FU2 (13.8 (12.3–15.3) nmol/L) versus FU1 (10.2 [9.3–10.9] nmol/L) and versus baseline (3.6 [3.02–4.02] nmol/L) (all p < 0.0001), whilst both LH and E2 levels significantly decreased over the same time frame (all p ≤ 0.01). Circulating IL-6 levels further decreased at FU2 compared to FU1 levels (19.3 vs. 72.8 pg/ml) (p = 0.02). At multivariable cox regression analyses, baseline tT level (HR 1.19; p = 0.03 [1.02–1.4]) was independently associated with the probability of tT level normalization over time, after adjusting for potential confounders. Conclusions: Circulating tT levels keep increasing over time in men after COVID-19. Still, almost 30% of men who recovered from COVID-19 had low circulating T levels suggestive for a condition of hypogonadism at a minimum 12-month follow-up.

Male patients with COVID-19 have been found with reduced serum total testosterone (tT) levels and with more severe clinical outcomes.

Testosterone in males with COVID-19: A twelve-month cohort study

Salonia, Andrea
Primo
;
Pozzi, Edoardo;Belladelli, Federico;Corsini, Christian;Ramirez, Giuseppe A;Cavalli, Giulio;Dagna, Lorenzo;Castagna, Antonella;Zangrillo, Alberto;Landoni, Giovanni;Rovere-Querini, Patrizia;Ciceri, Fabio
Penultimo
;
Montorsi, Francesco
Ultimo
2023-01-01

Abstract

Background: Male patients with COVID-19 have been found with reduced serum total testosterone (tT) levels and with more severe clinical outcomes. Objectives: To assess total testosterone (tT) levels and the probability of recovering eugonadal tT levels during a minimum 12-month timespan in a cohort of men who have been followed over time after the recovery from laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. Materials and methods: Demographic, clinical and hormonal values were collected for the overall cohort. Hypogonadism was defined as tT ≤9.2 nmol/l. The Charlson Comorbidity Index was used to score health-significant comorbidities. Descriptive statistics was used to compare hormonal levels at baseline versus 7-month (FU1) versus 12-month (FU2) follow-up, respectively. Multivariate cox proportional hazards regression model was used to identify the potential predictors of eugonadism recovery over time among patients with hypogonadism at the time of infection. Results: Of the original cohort of 286 patients, follow-up data were available for 121 (42.3%) at FU1 and 63 (22%) patients at FU2, respectively. Higher median interquartile range (IQR) tT levels were detected at FU2 (13.8 (12.3–15.3) nmol/L) versus FU1 (10.2 [9.3–10.9] nmol/L) and versus baseline (3.6 [3.02–4.02] nmol/L) (all p < 0.0001), whilst both LH and E2 levels significantly decreased over the same time frame (all p ≤ 0.01). Circulating IL-6 levels further decreased at FU2 compared to FU1 levels (19.3 vs. 72.8 pg/ml) (p = 0.02). At multivariable cox regression analyses, baseline tT level (HR 1.19; p = 0.03 [1.02–1.4]) was independently associated with the probability of tT level normalization over time, after adjusting for potential confounders. Conclusions: Circulating tT levels keep increasing over time in men after COVID-19. Still, almost 30% of men who recovered from COVID-19 had low circulating T levels suggestive for a condition of hypogonadism at a minimum 12-month follow-up.
2023
Male patients with COVID-19 have been found with reduced serum total testosterone (tT) levels and with more severe clinical outcomes.
comorbidities
COVID-19
follow-up
male
SARS-CoV-2
testosterone
COVID-19
SARS-CoV-2
comorbidities
follow-up
male
testosterone
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11768/132651
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