Diaphragm dysfunction is common after cardiac surgery and can be evaluated with ultrasonography (US). We aimed at assessing with US the incidence of diaphragmatic dysfunction and the impact of cardiovascular rehabilitation (CR) on its recovery. A single-center cohort study was performed. Patients were enrolled after cardiac surgery. The 6-min walking test (6MWT) and diaphragm US were performed at CR admission and after 10 rehabilitative sessions. One hundred eighty-five patients were eligible for final analysis. One hundred thirty-one patients (70.8%) were found to have diaphragm dysfunction (excursion <2 cm). After CR, 68 patients regained normal diaphragmatic function; those with persistent dysfunction had a lower level of functional performance on the 6MWT (metabolic equivalents of tasks: 3.3 vs. 3.6, p = 0.013). The patients who underwent combined surgery (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 4.09, p = 0.001) and those with post-operative pneumothorax (aOR = 3.02, p = 0.042) were at increased risk of failure to improve diaphragmatic excursion. US parameters were more powerful tools in predicting diaphragmatic evolution compared with the 6MWT indexes: baseline diaphragm excursion and thickening fraction were associated with complete diaphragmatic functional recovery after CR (aOR = 9.101, p < 0.001, and aOR = 1.058, p = 0.020 respectively). US is a valuable tool for the assessment of post-operative diaphragmatic dysfunction and can identify patients at risk of diaphragmatic recovery failure.

Diaphragm Dysfunction after Cardiac Surgery: Insights from Ultrasound Imaging during Cardiac Rehabilitation

Cianfanelli, Lorenzo;Rizza, Vincenzo;Castiglioni, Alessandro;De Bonis, Michele;Alfieri, Ottavio;Cianflone, Domenico
2022-01-01

Abstract

Diaphragm dysfunction is common after cardiac surgery and can be evaluated with ultrasonography (US). We aimed at assessing with US the incidence of diaphragmatic dysfunction and the impact of cardiovascular rehabilitation (CR) on its recovery. A single-center cohort study was performed. Patients were enrolled after cardiac surgery. The 6-min walking test (6MWT) and diaphragm US were performed at CR admission and after 10 rehabilitative sessions. One hundred eighty-five patients were eligible for final analysis. One hundred thirty-one patients (70.8%) were found to have diaphragm dysfunction (excursion <2 cm). After CR, 68 patients regained normal diaphragmatic function; those with persistent dysfunction had a lower level of functional performance on the 6MWT (metabolic equivalents of tasks: 3.3 vs. 3.6, p = 0.013). The patients who underwent combined surgery (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 4.09, p = 0.001) and those with post-operative pneumothorax (aOR = 3.02, p = 0.042) were at increased risk of failure to improve diaphragmatic excursion. US parameters were more powerful tools in predicting diaphragmatic evolution compared with the 6MWT indexes: baseline diaphragm excursion and thickening fraction were associated with complete diaphragmatic functional recovery after CR (aOR = 9.101, p < 0.001, and aOR = 1.058, p = 0.020 respectively). US is a valuable tool for the assessment of post-operative diaphragmatic dysfunction and can identify patients at risk of diaphragmatic recovery failure.
Cardiac rehabilitation
Cardiac surgery
Diaphragm dysfunction
Diaphragm ultrasound
Functional recovery
Cohort Studies
Diaphragm
Humans
Prospective Studies
Ultrasonography
Cardiac Rehabilitation
Cardiac Surgical Procedures
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11768/133213
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