The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of substrate and cement shades on the translucency and color of lithium-disilicate and zirconia CAD/CAM materials. Two light-cured resin cements (RelyX Veneer Cement; 3M; Choice 2 Veneer Cement; Bisco Dental) with a standardized thickness (0.1 mm) were tested in combination with two different monolithic CAD/CAM materials (E-Max CAD (LI2SI2O5); Ivoclar Vivadent; Katana (ZrO2); Kuraray-Noritake Dental) on two different colored composite substrates used as a dentin (Filtek Supreme XTE; 3M); for a total of 12 combinations (n = 10). The specimens' color was measured with a spectrophotometer (Spectroshade; MHT). Measurements were taken using the CIELAB color coordinate system (L*a*b*) against black and white backgrounds. L*a*b* values were statistically analyzed for the variables Substrate, Ceramic, and Cement by applying a Three-Way ANOVA followed by the Tukey Test for post-hoc comparison (p < 0.05). Translucency Parameter (TP) and Constant Ratio (CR) were assessed to evaluate translucency; acceptability and perceptibility thresholds (ΔE00 1.8 and 0.8) were used. Statistically significant influence was found for factors ceramic material, cement shade, and substrate color (p < 0.05). Unacceptable color differences were reported for Li2Si2O5. Opacity was significantly higher when white opaque cement shade was employed. Ceramic type and cement shade significantly influenced L*a*b* color coordinates. The final translucency and color of ceramic restorations can, therefore, be influenced by ceramic material, cement shade, and substrate color.
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