Unmanipulated haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis (haplo-PTCY) and unrelated double-unit umbilical cord blood transplantation (dUCBT) are feasible options for treating patients with high-risk acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). This study compared outcomes after dUCBT and haplo-HCT using peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) in adult patients with AML in complete remission (CR) who underwent transplantation in European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT)-affiliated centers. In a population of adults with de novo AML in first or second CR, we compared outcomes after dUCBT (n = 165) and after haplo-PTCY PBSC (n = 544) performed between January 2013 and December 2018. Patients receiving in vivo antithymocyte globulin, Campath, or ex vivo T cell depletion were excluded. The median follow-up was 33 months for the haplo-PTCY arm and 52 months for the dUCBT arm. No statistically significant differences were observed between the 2 arms in the rates of grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) (hazard ratio [HR], 1.31; P = .18), grade III-IV acute GVHD (HR, 1.17; P = .56), chronic GVHD (HR, .86; P = .48), relapse (HR, 1.07; P = .77), nonrelapse mortality (NRM) (HR, .94; P = .77), leukemia-free survival (LFS) (HR, .99; P = .95), or overall survival (OS) (HR, .99; P = .97). Favorable cytogenetic risk was the sole factor predictive of lower relapse incidence (RI). Younger age at transplantation was associated with lower NRM and higher LFS and OS. Both dUCBT and haplo-PTCY with PBSCs can be considered valid approaches for adult AML patients in CR. New strategies should be investigated in both settings to define the most appropriate conditioning regimen and potentially decrease RI and NRM through better immune reconstitution and optimal supportive care.

Comparison of Outcomes after Unrelated Double-Unit Cord Blood and Haploidentical Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation in Adults with Acute Myelogenous Leukemia: A Study on Behalf of Eurocord and the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation

Ciceri, Fabio;
2022-01-01

Abstract

Unmanipulated haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis (haplo-PTCY) and unrelated double-unit umbilical cord blood transplantation (dUCBT) are feasible options for treating patients with high-risk acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). This study compared outcomes after dUCBT and haplo-HCT using peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) in adult patients with AML in complete remission (CR) who underwent transplantation in European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT)-affiliated centers. In a population of adults with de novo AML in first or second CR, we compared outcomes after dUCBT (n = 165) and after haplo-PTCY PBSC (n = 544) performed between January 2013 and December 2018. Patients receiving in vivo antithymocyte globulin, Campath, or ex vivo T cell depletion were excluded. The median follow-up was 33 months for the haplo-PTCY arm and 52 months for the dUCBT arm. No statistically significant differences were observed between the 2 arms in the rates of grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) (hazard ratio [HR], 1.31; P = .18), grade III-IV acute GVHD (HR, 1.17; P = .56), chronic GVHD (HR, .86; P = .48), relapse (HR, 1.07; P = .77), nonrelapse mortality (NRM) (HR, .94; P = .77), leukemia-free survival (LFS) (HR, .99; P = .95), or overall survival (OS) (HR, .99; P = .97). Favorable cytogenetic risk was the sole factor predictive of lower relapse incidence (RI). Younger age at transplantation was associated with lower NRM and higher LFS and OS. Both dUCBT and haplo-PTCY with PBSCs can be considered valid approaches for adult AML patients in CR. New strategies should be investigated in both settings to define the most appropriate conditioning regimen and potentially decrease RI and NRM through better immune reconstitution and optimal supportive care.
2022
Acute myelogenous leukemia
Double cord blood transplantation
Haploidentical transplant
Post-transplantation cyclophosphamide
Acute Disease
Adult
Alemtuzumab
Antilymphocyte Serum
Bone Marrow
Cyclophosphamide
Fetal Blood
Humans
Recurrence
Graft vs Host Disease
Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute
Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11768/133894
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