Synovial fluid (SF) is a viscous and mucinous substance produced by the synovium, a specialized connective tissue that lines diarthrodial joints. SF represents a source of disease-related proteins that could be used as potential biomarkers in several articular diseases. Based on these findings the study of SF has been gaining increasing importance, in recent years. This review aims to summarize the usefulness of synovial fluid in orthopaedics research and clinical practice, mainly focusing on osteoarthritis (OA) and periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs). Proteomics of the SF has shown the up-regulation of several components of the classic complement pathway in OA samples, including C1, C2, C3, C4A, C4B, C5, and C4 C4BPA, thus depicting that complement is involved in the pathogenesis of OA. Moreover, proteomics has demonstrated that some pro-inflammatory cytokines, namely IL-6, IL-8, and IL-18, have a role in OA. Several SF proteins have been studied to improve the diagnosis of PJIs, including alpha-defensin (Alpha-D), leukocyte esterase (LE), c-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), calprotectin and presepsin. The limits and potentials of these SF biomarkers will be discussed.

The Usefulness of Synovial Fluid Proteome Analysis in Orthopaedics: Focus on Osteoarthritis and Periprosthetic Joint Infections

Banfi, Giuseppe;
2022-01-01

Abstract

Synovial fluid (SF) is a viscous and mucinous substance produced by the synovium, a specialized connective tissue that lines diarthrodial joints. SF represents a source of disease-related proteins that could be used as potential biomarkers in several articular diseases. Based on these findings the study of SF has been gaining increasing importance, in recent years. This review aims to summarize the usefulness of synovial fluid in orthopaedics research and clinical practice, mainly focusing on osteoarthritis (OA) and periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs). Proteomics of the SF has shown the up-regulation of several components of the classic complement pathway in OA samples, including C1, C2, C3, C4A, C4B, C5, and C4 C4BPA, thus depicting that complement is involved in the pathogenesis of OA. Moreover, proteomics has demonstrated that some pro-inflammatory cytokines, namely IL-6, IL-8, and IL-18, have a role in OA. Several SF proteins have been studied to improve the diagnosis of PJIs, including alpha-defensin (Alpha-D), leukocyte esterase (LE), c-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), calprotectin and presepsin. The limits and potentials of these SF biomarkers will be discussed.
2022
osteoarthritis
periprosthetic joint infections
proteomics
synovial fluid
synovial joint
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11768/134733
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