Background and Objectives: Data on the clinical efficacy of EUS-guided ablation using the HybridTherm-Probe (EUS-HTP) in locally advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (LA-PDAC) are lacking. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of EUS-HTP added to chemotherapy (CT) on overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) of LA-PDAC patients with local disease progression (DP) after first-line therapy, compared to CT alone in controls. Methods: LA-PDAC cases, prospectively treated by EUS-HTP, were retrospectively compared to matched controls (1:2) receiving standard treatment. Study endpoints were the OS and PFS from local DP after first-line therapy, compared through log-rank test calculating hazard ratios and differences in restricted mean OS/PFS time (RMOST/RMPFST) within prespecified time points (4, 6, and 12 months). Results: Thirteen cases and 26 controls were included. Clinical, tumor, and therapy features before and after first-line therapy were case-control balanced. The median OS and PFS were not significantly improved in cases over controls (months: 7 vs. 5 and 5 vs. 3, respectively). At 4 and 6 months, the RMPFST difference was in favor of cases (P = 0.0001 and P = 0.003, respectively). In cases and controls not candidate to further CT (N = 5 and N = 9), the median OS and PFS were not significantly improved in cases over controls (months: 6 vs. 3 and 4 vs. 2, respectively), but the RMPFST difference was in favor of cases at 4 months (P = 0.002). Conclusions: In locally progressive PDAC patients experiencing failure of first-line therapy, EUS-HTP achieves a significantly better RMPFST up to 6 months compared to standard treatment, although without a significant impact on OS.
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