Anderson-Fabry Disease (FD) is an X-linked lysosomal disorder caused by mutations in GLA, the gene encoding the lysosomal hydrolase alpha-galactosidase A (alpha-Gal A), leading to accumulation of glycosphingolipids in the lysosomes. FD is a multisystemic disorder leading to progressive cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and kidney dysfunction. Phenotypes are divided in two main classes, classic or non-classic, depending on substrate accumulation, age at onset, disease manifestation, severity and progression. The more severe classical phenotype is generally associated with mutations leading to absent or strongly reduced alpha-Gal A activity, while mutations with higher residual activity generally lead to the non-classical one. Approximately 70% of the over 1,000 Fabry disease-associated mutations are missense mutations, some leading to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention of mutant protein. We hypothesized that such mutations could be associated, besides the well-known absence of alpha-Gal A function/activity, to a possible gain of function effect due to production of a misfolded protein. We hence expressed alpha-Gal A missense mutations in HEK293 GLA-/- cells and investigated the localization of mutant protein and induction of ER stress and of the unfolded protein response (UPR). We selected a panel of 7 missense mutations, including mutants shown to have residual or no activity in vitro. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that mutants with residual activity have decreased lysosomal localization compared with wild type, and partial retention in the ER, while missense mutants with no residual activity are fully retained in the ER. UPR (ATF6 branch) was significantly induced by all but two mutants, with clear correlation with the extent of ER retention and the predicted mutation structural effect. These data identify a new molecular pathway, associated with gain of function effect, possibly involved in pathogenesis of FD.

: Anderson-Fabry Disease (FD) is an X-linked lysosomal disorder caused by mutations in GLA, the gene encoding the lysosomal hydrolase α-galactosidase A (α-Gal A), leading to accumulation of glycosphingolipids in the lysosomes. FD is a multisystemic disorder leading to progressive cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and kidney dysfunction. Phenotypes are divided in two main classes, classic or non-classic, depending on substrate accumulation, age at onset, disease manifestation, severity and progression. The more severe classical phenotype is generally associated with mutations leading to absent or strongly reduced α-Gal A activity, while mutations with higher residual activity generally lead to the non-classical one. Approximately 70% of the over 1,000 Fabry disease-associated mutations are missense mutations, some leading to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention of mutant protein. We hypothesized that such mutations could be associated, besides the well-known absence of α-Gal A function/activity, to a possible gain of function effect due to production of a misfolded protein. We hence expressed α-Gal A missense mutations in HEK293 GLA -/- cells and investigated the localization of mutant protein and induction of ER stress and of the unfolded protein response (UPR). We selected a panel of 7 missense mutations, including mutants shown to have residual or no activity in vitro. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that mutants with residual activity have decreased lysosomal localization compared with wild type, and partial retention in the ER, while missense mutants with no residual activity are fully retained in the ER. UPR (ATF6 branch) was significantly induced by all but two mutants, with clear correlation with the extent of ER retention and the predicted mutation structural effect. These data identify a new molecular pathway, associated with gain of function effect, possibly involved in pathogenesis of FD.

α-Gal A missense variants associated with Fabry disease can lead to ER stress and induction of the unfolded protein response / Consolato, Francesco; De Fusco, Maurizio; Schaeffer, Céline; Pieruzzi, Federico; Scolari, Francesco; Gallieni, Maurizio; Lanzani, Chiara; Feriozzi, Sandro; Rampoldi, Luca. - In: MOLECULAR GENETICS AND METABOLISM REPORTS. - ISSN 2214-4269. - 33:(2022), p. 100926. [10.1016/j.ymgmr.2022.100926]

α-Gal A missense variants associated with Fabry disease can lead to ER stress and induction of the unfolded protein response

Lanzani, Chiara;Rampoldi, Luca
2022-01-01

Abstract

Anderson-Fabry Disease (FD) is an X-linked lysosomal disorder caused by mutations in GLA, the gene encoding the lysosomal hydrolase alpha-galactosidase A (alpha-Gal A), leading to accumulation of glycosphingolipids in the lysosomes. FD is a multisystemic disorder leading to progressive cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and kidney dysfunction. Phenotypes are divided in two main classes, classic or non-classic, depending on substrate accumulation, age at onset, disease manifestation, severity and progression. The more severe classical phenotype is generally associated with mutations leading to absent or strongly reduced alpha-Gal A activity, while mutations with higher residual activity generally lead to the non-classical one. Approximately 70% of the over 1,000 Fabry disease-associated mutations are missense mutations, some leading to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention of mutant protein. We hypothesized that such mutations could be associated, besides the well-known absence of alpha-Gal A function/activity, to a possible gain of function effect due to production of a misfolded protein. We hence expressed alpha-Gal A missense mutations in HEK293 GLA-/- cells and investigated the localization of mutant protein and induction of ER stress and of the unfolded protein response (UPR). We selected a panel of 7 missense mutations, including mutants shown to have residual or no activity in vitro. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that mutants with residual activity have decreased lysosomal localization compared with wild type, and partial retention in the ER, while missense mutants with no residual activity are fully retained in the ER. UPR (ATF6 branch) was significantly induced by all but two mutants, with clear correlation with the extent of ER retention and the predicted mutation structural effect. These data identify a new molecular pathway, associated with gain of function effect, possibly involved in pathogenesis of FD.
2022
: Anderson-Fabry Disease (FD) is an X-linked lysosomal disorder caused by mutations in GLA, the gene encoding the lysosomal hydrolase α-galactosidase A (α-Gal A), leading to accumulation of glycosphingolipids in the lysosomes. FD is a multisystemic disorder leading to progressive cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and kidney dysfunction. Phenotypes are divided in two main classes, classic or non-classic, depending on substrate accumulation, age at onset, disease manifestation, severity and progression. The more severe classical phenotype is generally associated with mutations leading to absent or strongly reduced α-Gal A activity, while mutations with higher residual activity generally lead to the non-classical one. Approximately 70% of the over 1,000 Fabry disease-associated mutations are missense mutations, some leading to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention of mutant protein. We hypothesized that such mutations could be associated, besides the well-known absence of α-Gal A function/activity, to a possible gain of function effect due to production of a misfolded protein. We hence expressed α-Gal A missense mutations in HEK293 GLA -/- cells and investigated the localization of mutant protein and induction of ER stress and of the unfolded protein response (UPR). We selected a panel of 7 missense mutations, including mutants shown to have residual or no activity in vitro. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that mutants with residual activity have decreased lysosomal localization compared with wild type, and partial retention in the ER, while missense mutants with no residual activity are fully retained in the ER. UPR (ATF6 branch) was significantly induced by all but two mutants, with clear correlation with the extent of ER retention and the predicted mutation structural effect. These data identify a new molecular pathway, associated with gain of function effect, possibly involved in pathogenesis of FD.
ER stress
Fabry disease
Missense mutations
Unfolded protein response
α-galactosidase A
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11768/135480
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