Background and Objectives: Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) often mimics pancreatic cancer (PC), particularly if presenting as a focal lesion. EUS may orient the differential diagnosis between them. This study aims to identify EUS findings that might be useful to differentiate type 1 focal autoimmune pancreatitis (f-AIP1) and PC. Materials and Methods: F-AIP1 and PC patients were retrospectively collected, matched, and compared. EUS findings considered were: focal mass echogenicity, loss of lobularity, distal atrophy, peripancreatic hypoechoic margins (PHM), pancreatic duct dilation, duct-penetrating sign (DPS), pancreatic/common bile duct thickened walls (PD/CBD-TW), and vessel infiltration (VI). Elastography findings were also recorded. Variables with a P < 0.05 at univariate analysis were included in logistic multiple regression. Results: Fifteen patients with f-AIP and 60 with PC were studied. FE was hypoechoic in all patients from both groups. PHM was observed in 40% of f-AIP1 cases but not in PC ones (P < 0.001). DPS was found in 10/15 (66.7%) f-AIP1 and in 7/60 (11.7%) PC patients (P < 0.001). PD-TW and CBD-TW were observed in 66.7%/60% f-AIP1 cases and in 6.7%/13.6% PC patients, respectively (P < 0.001 for both comparisons). Pancreatic masses were significantly different at EUS elastography (elastic respectively in 71.4% f-AIP1 and 3.8% PC, P < 0.001). VI was suspected in 20% of f-AIPs and 85% of PCs (P < 0.001). At multiple regression, PD-TW, CBD-TW, elastic pattern, and the absence of VI independently supported a diagnosis of f-AIP1. Conclusions: Our results suggest that EUS findings deserve consideration in the diagnostic workup of AIP to improve the differential diagnosis with PC.
Tacelli, Matteo;Della Torre, Emanuel;Lanzillotta, Marco;Falconi, Massimo;Doglioni, Claudio;Arcidiacono, Paolo Giorgio
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