The efficacy of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) is well-established in patients with obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome (O-APS). Their role in women with unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss (U-RPL) and late obstetrical complications (intrauterine growth restriction, IUGR and preeclampsia) is controversial. Here we compared rates of miscarriage and late obstetrical complications in RPL patients diagnosed with O-APS (n = 57) or hereditary thrombophilia (n = 25) (both assuming LMWH from the beginning of pregnancy) and in patients with a history of U-RPL (n = 118), assuming or not LMWH, followed at the 'Pregnancy at risk' and 'Recurrent pregnancy loss' outpatient clinics at the San Raffaele Hospital from April 2010 to April 2020. Patients with systemic autoimmune diseases other than primary O-APS were excluded. We tested for bivariate or multivariate associations among adverse pregnancy outcomes, the presence of thrombophilia and LMWH use by using chisquare test, Anova, propensity score adjusted univariate logistic regression and multivariate analysis as appropriate. U-RPL patients assuming LMWH from the beginning of pregnancy (group A) had a significantly lower rate of miscarriage compared to U-RPL patients who were not treated with LMWH (group B) (13 % vs. 41 % respectively, p 0.001) and similar pregnancy rates compared to both O-APS patients with a history of RPL taking LMWH (group C, 18 %) and RPL patients with thrombophilia and treated with LMWH (group D, 16 %). Our data highlight a protective effect of LMWH on miscarriage in patients with a history of U-RPL. In these patients, LMWH seems as effective as in O-APS and hereditary thrombophilia in reducing RPL
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