ObjectiveTo report a preliminary experience of outpatient management of patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) through an innovative approach of healthcare delivery. Patients and MethodsPatients evaluated at the Mild-to-Moderate COVID-19 Outpatient clinics (MMCOs) of San Raffaele University Hospital and Luigi Sacco University Hospital in Milan, Italy, from 1 October 2020 to 31 October 2021 were included. Patients were referred by general practitioners (GPs), Emergency Department (ED) physicians or hospital specialists (HS) in case of moderate COVID-19. A classification and regression tree (CART) model predicting ED referral by MMCO physicians was developed to aid GPs identify those deserving immediate ED admission. Cost-effectiveness analysis was also performed. ResultsA total of 660 patients were included. The majority (70%) was referred by GPs, 21% by the ED and 9% by HS. Patients referred by GPs had more severe disease as assessed by peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO(2)), ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO(2)), C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and interstitial involvement at lung ultrasound. Among them, 18% were addressed to the ED following MMCO assessment. CART analysis identified three independent predictors, namely home-measured SpO(2), age and body mass index (BMI), that robustly divide patients into risk groups of COVID-19 severity. Home-measured SpO(2) < 95% and BMI >= 33 Kg/m(2) defined the high-risk group. The model yielded an accuracy (95% CI) of 83 (77-88)%. Outpatient management of COVID-19 patients allowed the national healthcare system to spare 1,490,422.05 euro when compared with inpatient care. ConclusionMild-to-moderate COVID-19 outpatient clinics were effective and sustainable in managing COVID-19 patients and allowed to alleviate pressure on EDs and hospital wards, favoring effort redirection toward non-COVID-19 patients.

A Pilot Study of the Efficacy and Economical Sustainability of Acute Coronavirus Disease 2019 Patient Management in an Outpatient Setting

De Lorenzo, Rebecca;Montagna, Marco;Bossi, Eleonora;Cilla, Marta;Pata, Giulia;Pomaranzi, Chiara;Bussolari, Cecilia;Rovere-Querini, Patrizia
2022-01-01

Abstract

ObjectiveTo report a preliminary experience of outpatient management of patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) through an innovative approach of healthcare delivery. Patients and MethodsPatients evaluated at the Mild-to-Moderate COVID-19 Outpatient clinics (MMCOs) of San Raffaele University Hospital and Luigi Sacco University Hospital in Milan, Italy, from 1 October 2020 to 31 October 2021 were included. Patients were referred by general practitioners (GPs), Emergency Department (ED) physicians or hospital specialists (HS) in case of moderate COVID-19. A classification and regression tree (CART) model predicting ED referral by MMCO physicians was developed to aid GPs identify those deserving immediate ED admission. Cost-effectiveness analysis was also performed. ResultsA total of 660 patients were included. The majority (70%) was referred by GPs, 21% by the ED and 9% by HS. Patients referred by GPs had more severe disease as assessed by peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO(2)), ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO(2)), C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and interstitial involvement at lung ultrasound. Among them, 18% were addressed to the ED following MMCO assessment. CART analysis identified three independent predictors, namely home-measured SpO(2), age and body mass index (BMI), that robustly divide patients into risk groups of COVID-19 severity. Home-measured SpO(2) < 95% and BMI >= 33 Kg/m(2) defined the high-risk group. The model yielded an accuracy (95% CI) of 83 (77-88)%. Outpatient management of COVID-19 patients allowed the national healthcare system to spare 1,490,422.05 euro when compared with inpatient care. ConclusionMild-to-moderate COVID-19 outpatient clinics were effective and sustainable in managing COVID-19 patients and allowed to alleviate pressure on EDs and hospital wards, favoring effort redirection toward non-COVID-19 patients.
COVID-19
care pathway
cost-effectiveness
healthcare
outpatient clinic
prediction model
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11768/135638
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