Context In the multifaceted COVID-19 clinical scenario characterized by a multi-system disorder with negative implications not only on respiratory function but also on cardiac, hematological, neurological and endocrine-metabolic systems, a distinctive osteo-metabolic phenotype with an independent influence on disease severity and recovery of patients affected was early reported. Aim To summarize and update the main evidences regarding the distinct components of this phenotype in acute and Long COVID-19, reinforcing its clinical relevance and discussing the main pathophysiological and clinical-therapeutic implications of the most recent reported findings. Results This emerging phenotype is characterized by a widespread acute hypocalcemia and hypovitaminosis D with an impaired compensatory parathyroid hormone response, and a high prevalence of skeletal complications such as vertebral fractures. The clinical relevance of this osteo-metabolic phenotype on acute COVID-19 is well characterized, and novel seminal evidences are progressively highlighting its importance also in predicting patient's long-term outcomes and Long COVID-19 occurrence. Conclusions These findings reinforced the central role of a multidisciplinary team, including endocrinologists, in evaluating these patients for a proactive search of each aspect of the osteo-metabolic phenotype components since they may represent suitable therapeutic targets to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection, poor COVID-19 outcomes, Long COVID-19 occurrence and even possibly better responses to COVID-19 vaccination.
di Filippo, Luigi
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