Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is capable of inducing the activation of NACHT, leucine-rich repeat, and pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, a macromolecular structure sensing the danger and amplifying the inflammatory response. The main product processed by NLRP3 inflammasome is interleukin (IL)-1β, responsible for the downstream production of IL-6, which has been recognized as an important mediator in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Since colchicine is an anti-inflammatory drug with the ability to block NLRP3 inflammasome oligomerization, this may prevent the release of active IL-1β and block the detrimental effects of downstream cytokines, i.e. IL-6. To date, few randomized clinical trials and many observational studies with colchicine have been conducted, showing interesting signals. As colchicine is a nonspecific inhibitor of the NLRP3 inflammasome, compounds specifically blocking this molecule might provide increased advantages in reducing the inflammatory burden and its related clinical manifestations. This may occur through a selective blockade of different steps preceding NLRP3 inflammasome oligomerization as well as through a reduced release of the main cytokines (IL-1β and IL-18). Since most evidence is based on observational studies, definitive conclusion cannot be drawn and additional studies are needed to confirm preliminary results and further dissect how colchicine and other NLRP3 inhibitors reduce the inflammatory burden and evaluate the timing and duration of treatment.

Colchicine for COVID-19: targeting NLRP3 inflammasome to blunt hyperinflammation

Dagna L.;
2022-01-01

Abstract

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is capable of inducing the activation of NACHT, leucine-rich repeat, and pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, a macromolecular structure sensing the danger and amplifying the inflammatory response. The main product processed by NLRP3 inflammasome is interleukin (IL)-1β, responsible for the downstream production of IL-6, which has been recognized as an important mediator in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Since colchicine is an anti-inflammatory drug with the ability to block NLRP3 inflammasome oligomerization, this may prevent the release of active IL-1β and block the detrimental effects of downstream cytokines, i.e. IL-6. To date, few randomized clinical trials and many observational studies with colchicine have been conducted, showing interesting signals. As colchicine is a nonspecific inhibitor of the NLRP3 inflammasome, compounds specifically blocking this molecule might provide increased advantages in reducing the inflammatory burden and its related clinical manifestations. This may occur through a selective blockade of different steps preceding NLRP3 inflammasome oligomerization as well as through a reduced release of the main cytokines (IL-1β and IL-18). Since most evidence is based on observational studies, definitive conclusion cannot be drawn and additional studies are needed to confirm preliminary results and further dissect how colchicine and other NLRP3 inhibitors reduce the inflammatory burden and evaluate the timing and duration of treatment.
2022
Colchicine
COVID-19
IL-1β
IL-6
NLRP3 inflammasome
SARS-CoV-2
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11768/135846
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