Background: The primary objective of this study was to estimate the proportion of people living with HIV (PLWH) who switched from a non-protease inhibitor (PI)-based regimen [integrase strand transfer inhibitor (InSTI)-based or non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based regimen] to darunavir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, tenofovir alafenamide (D/C/F/TAF). Methods: This was a retrospective study on PLWH treated with a non-PI regimen in January 2017, who switched to D/C/F/TAF or to another antiretroviral therapy (ART) within November 2019. Follow-up was from the start date of D/C/F/TAF until the last available visit or discontinuation for any reason of this regimen. Virological failure (VF) was defined as 2 consecutive HIV-RNA values >50 copies/mL. Characteristics were reported as median (interquartile range) or frequency (%). A univariate Poisson regression model was used to measure the incidence rate of switch to D/C/F/TAF. Changes in laboratory parameters during D/C/F/TAF were assessed by univariate mixed linear models. Results: Overall, 3076 PLWH were included; 83% were male, median age at ART switch was 50 (42–56) years and median time on ART was 5.2 (0.3–13.0) years. PLWH had a median follow-up of 4.76 (3.70–6.38) years; during 17,099 person-years of follow-up (PYFU), 423/3076 (14%) participants discontinued the non-PI-based regimen and 106/423 (25%) switched to D/C/F/TAF, with an overall incidence rate of switch to D/C/F/TAF of 6.2 per 1000-PYFU (95% CI: 5.0–7.4). Among PLWH who switched to D/C/F/TAF, the ongoing regimen was based on NNRTIs in 37 (35%) and on InSTIs in 69 (65%). Main reasons leading to switch to D/C/F/TAF included neuropsychiatric adverse events (37%), VF (26%) and Kaposi sarcoma progression (5%). Conclusion: In the last years, a non-negligible proportion of patients on an NNRTI-or an InSTI-based regimen switched to D/C/F/ TAF.
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