Background: Recurrent aphthous stomatitis consists of the presence of abrasions or ulcerations located on mucosae (oral or genital). Objectives: The aim of this article is to review the current literature providing the main causes related to recurrent aphthous stomatitis and insights into treatment and management of this clinical condition Methods: Articles matching terms that correlated with "recurrent aphthous stomatitis"were searched on PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library and selected according to their pertinence. Results: Several forms of aphthous stomatitis have been described, based on the extent (minor, major), morphology (herpetiform) and associations to other signs (Behçet syndrome or more complex inflammatory syndromes). Topical as well as systemic treatments have been described to obtain a faster remission of the aphthosis or to reduce associated symptoms such as pain. Conclusions: Recurrent aphthous stomatitis can have a mild-to-severe clinical appearance, being mainly localized on the oral mucosa or at the level of the genital area. Different strategies have been described so far for its management and treatment.
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