: The generation of new ribosomes is a coordinated process essential to sustain cell growth. As such, it is tightly regulated according to cell needs. As cancer cells require intense protein translation to ensure their enhanced growth rate, they exploit various mechanisms to boost ribosome biogenesis. In this review, we will summarize how oncogenes and tumor suppressors modulate the biosynthesis of the RNA component of ribosomes, starting from the description of well-characterized pathways that converge on ribosomal RNA transcription while including novel insights that reveal unexpected regulatory networks hacked by cancer cells to unleash ribosome production.
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