PURPOSE: To clarify the histologic basis of bacillary layer detachment (BALAD) through a review of the current literature and an analysis of retinal imaging. METHODS: The literature for previous reports of BALAD were reviewed. An analysis of retinal images was performed to support anatomical conclusions. RESULTS: A total of 164 unique patients with BALAD on optical coherence tomography (OCT) were identified from the published literature. Twenty-two underlying etiologies, all associated with subretinal exudation, were identified. Forty-one different OCT terminologies were found. The defining OCT feature of BALAD was a split at the level of the photoreceptor inner segment myoid creating a distinctive intraretinal cavity. Resolution of BALAD was followed by a rapid restoration of the ellipsoid zone. Histology of age-related macular degeneration eyes suggests that individual photoreceptors can shed inner segments. Furthermore, detachment of the entire layer of inner segments is a common postmortem artifact. It is proposed that BALAD occurs when outwardly directed forces promoting attachment of photoreceptor outer segments to the retinal pigment epithelium exceed the tensile strength of the photoreceptor inner segment myoid. CONCLUSION: This review serves to strengthen the OCT nomenclature "bacillary layer detachment," based on specific reflectance information obtained by OCT and previously published histologic observations.

BACILLARY LAYER DETACHMENT: MULTIMODAL IMAGING AND HISTOLOGIC EVIDENCE OF A NOVEL OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY TERMINOLOGY: Literature Review and Proposed Theory

Miserocchi E.;
2021-01-01

Abstract

PURPOSE: To clarify the histologic basis of bacillary layer detachment (BALAD) through a review of the current literature and an analysis of retinal imaging. METHODS: The literature for previous reports of BALAD were reviewed. An analysis of retinal images was performed to support anatomical conclusions. RESULTS: A total of 164 unique patients with BALAD on optical coherence tomography (OCT) were identified from the published literature. Twenty-two underlying etiologies, all associated with subretinal exudation, were identified. Forty-one different OCT terminologies were found. The defining OCT feature of BALAD was a split at the level of the photoreceptor inner segment myoid creating a distinctive intraretinal cavity. Resolution of BALAD was followed by a rapid restoration of the ellipsoid zone. Histology of age-related macular degeneration eyes suggests that individual photoreceptors can shed inner segments. Furthermore, detachment of the entire layer of inner segments is a common postmortem artifact. It is proposed that BALAD occurs when outwardly directed forces promoting attachment of photoreceptor outer segments to the retinal pigment epithelium exceed the tensile strength of the photoreceptor inner segment myoid. CONCLUSION: This review serves to strengthen the OCT nomenclature "bacillary layer detachment," based on specific reflectance information obtained by OCT and previously published histologic observations.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11768/136221
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