Aims/hypothesis: Islet autoantibodies (AAbs) are detected in >90% of individuals with clinically suspected type 1 diabetes at disease onset. A single AAb, sometimes at low titre, is often detected in some individuals, making their diagnosis uncertain. Type 1 diabetes genetic risk scores (GRS) are a useful tool for discriminating polygenic autoimmune type 1 diabetes from other types of diabetes, particularly the monogenic forms, but testing is not routinely performed in the clinic. Here, we used a type 1 diabetes GRS to screen for monogenic diabetes in individuals with weak evidence of autoimmunity, i.e. with a single AAb at disease onset. Methods: In a pilot study, we genetically screened 142 individuals with suspected type 1 diabetes, 42 of whom were AAb-negative, 27 of whom had a single AAb (single AAb-positive) and 73 of whom had multiple AAbs (multiple AAb-positive) at disease onset. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) was performed in 41 AAb-negative participants, 26 single AAb-positive participants and 60 multiple AAb-positive participants using an analysis pipeline of more than 200 diabetes-associated genes. Results: The type 1 diabetes GRS was significantly lower in AAb-negative individuals than in those with a single and multiple AAbs. Pathogenetic class 4/5 variants in MODY or monogenic diabetes genes were identified in 15/41 (36.6%) AAb-negative individuals, while class 3 variants of unknown significance were identified in 17/41 (41.5%). Residual C-peptide levels at diagnosis were higher in individuals with mutations compared to those without pathogenetic variants. Class 3 variants of unknown significance were found in 11/26 (42.3%) single AAb-positive individuals, and pathogenetic class 4/5 variants were present in 2/26 (7.7%) single AAb-positive individuals. No pathogenetic class 4/5 variants were identified in multiple AAb-positive individuals, but class 3 variants of unknown significance were identified in 19/60 (31.7%) patients. Several patients across the three groups had more than one class 3 variant. Conclusions/interpretation: These findings provide insights into the genetic makeup of patients who show weak evidence of autoimmunity at disease onset. Absence of islet AAbs or the presence of a single AAb together with a low type 1 diabetes GRS may be indicative of a monogenic form of diabetes, and use of NGS may improve the accuracy of diagnosis.

Aims/hypothesis: Islet autoantibodies (AAbs) are detected in >90% of individuals with clinically suspected type 1 diabetes at disease onset. A single AAb, sometimes at low titre, is often detected in some individuals, making their diagnosis uncertain. Type 1 diabetes genetic risk scores (GRS) are a useful tool for discriminating polygenic autoimmune type 1 diabetes from other types of diabetes, particularly the monogenic forms, but testing is not routinely performed in the clinic. Here, we used a type 1 diabetes GRS to screen for monogenic diabetes in individuals with weak evidence of autoimmunity, i.e. with a single AAb at disease onset. Methods: In a pilot study, we genetically screened 142 individuals with suspected type 1 diabetes, 42 of whom were AAb-negative, 27 of whom had a single AAb (single AAb-positive) and 73 of whom had multiple AAbs (multiple AAb-positive) at disease onset. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) was performed in 41 AAb-negative participants, 26 single AAb-positive participants and 60 multiple AAb-positive participants using an analysis pipeline of more than 200 diabetes-associated genes. Results: The type 1 diabetes GRS was significantly lower in AAb-negative individuals than in those with a single and multiple AAbs. Pathogenetic class 4/5 variants in MODY or monogenic diabetes genes were identified in 15/41 (36.6%) AAb-negative individuals, while class 3 variants of unknown significance were identified in 17/41 (41.5%). Residual C-peptide levels at diagnosis were higher in individuals with mutations compared to those without pathogenetic variants. Class 3 variants of unknown significance were found in 11/26 (42.3%) single AAb-positive individuals, and pathogenetic class 4/5 variants were present in 2/26 (7.7%) single AAb-positive individuals. No pathogenetic class 4/5 variants were identified in multiple AAb-positive individuals, but class 3 variants of unknown significance were identified in 19/60 (31.7%) patients. Several patients across the three groups had more than one class 3 variant. Conclusions/interpretation: These findings provide insights into the genetic makeup of patients who show weak evidence of autoimmunity at disease onset. Absence of islet AAbs or the presence of a single AAb together with a low type 1 diabetes GRS may be indicative of a monogenic form of diabetes, and use of NGS may improve the accuracy of diagnosis. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.].

Genetic determinants of type 1 diabetes in individuals with weak evidence of islet autoimmunity at disease onset / Carrera, Paola; Marzinotto, Ilaria; Bonfanti, Riccardo; Massimino, Luca; Calzavara, Silvia; Favellato, Μariagrazia; Jofra, Tatiana; De Giglio, Valeria; Bonura, Clara; Stabilini, Angela; Favalli, Valeria; Bondesan, Simone; Cicalese, Maria Pia; Laurenzi, Andrea; Caretto, Amelia; Frontino, Giulio; Rigamonti, Andrea; Molinari, Chiara; Scavini, Marina; Sandullo, Federica; Zapparoli, Ettore; Caridi, Nicoletta; Bonfiglio, Silvia; Castorani, Valeria; Ungaro, Federica; Petrelli, Alessandra; Barera, Graziano; Aiuti, Alessandro; Bosi, Emanuele; Battaglia, Manuela; Piemonti, Lorenzo; Lampasona, Vito; Fousteri, Georgia. - In: DIABETOLOGIA. - ISSN 0012-186X. - 66:4(2023), pp. 695-708. [10.1007/s00125-022-05865-5]

Genetic determinants of type 1 diabetes in individuals with weak evidence of islet autoimmunity at disease onset

Marzinotto, Ilaria;Bonfanti, Riccardo;Cicalese, Maria Pia;Laurenzi, Andrea;Sandullo, Federica;Aiuti, Alessandro;Bosi, Emanuele;Piemonti, Lorenzo;
2023-01-01

Abstract

Aims/hypothesis: Islet autoantibodies (AAbs) are detected in >90% of individuals with clinically suspected type 1 diabetes at disease onset. A single AAb, sometimes at low titre, is often detected in some individuals, making their diagnosis uncertain. Type 1 diabetes genetic risk scores (GRS) are a useful tool for discriminating polygenic autoimmune type 1 diabetes from other types of diabetes, particularly the monogenic forms, but testing is not routinely performed in the clinic. Here, we used a type 1 diabetes GRS to screen for monogenic diabetes in individuals with weak evidence of autoimmunity, i.e. with a single AAb at disease onset. Methods: In a pilot study, we genetically screened 142 individuals with suspected type 1 diabetes, 42 of whom were AAb-negative, 27 of whom had a single AAb (single AAb-positive) and 73 of whom had multiple AAbs (multiple AAb-positive) at disease onset. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) was performed in 41 AAb-negative participants, 26 single AAb-positive participants and 60 multiple AAb-positive participants using an analysis pipeline of more than 200 diabetes-associated genes. Results: The type 1 diabetes GRS was significantly lower in AAb-negative individuals than in those with a single and multiple AAbs. Pathogenetic class 4/5 variants in MODY or monogenic diabetes genes were identified in 15/41 (36.6%) AAb-negative individuals, while class 3 variants of unknown significance were identified in 17/41 (41.5%). Residual C-peptide levels at diagnosis were higher in individuals with mutations compared to those without pathogenetic variants. Class 3 variants of unknown significance were found in 11/26 (42.3%) single AAb-positive individuals, and pathogenetic class 4/5 variants were present in 2/26 (7.7%) single AAb-positive individuals. No pathogenetic class 4/5 variants were identified in multiple AAb-positive individuals, but class 3 variants of unknown significance were identified in 19/60 (31.7%) patients. Several patients across the three groups had more than one class 3 variant. Conclusions/interpretation: These findings provide insights into the genetic makeup of patients who show weak evidence of autoimmunity at disease onset. Absence of islet AAbs or the presence of a single AAb together with a low type 1 diabetes GRS may be indicative of a monogenic form of diabetes, and use of NGS may improve the accuracy of diagnosis. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.].
2023
Aims/hypothesis: Islet autoantibodies (AAbs) are detected in >90% of individuals with clinically suspected type 1 diabetes at disease onset. A single AAb, sometimes at low titre, is often detected in some individuals, making their diagnosis uncertain. Type 1 diabetes genetic risk scores (GRS) are a useful tool for discriminating polygenic autoimmune type 1 diabetes from other types of diabetes, particularly the monogenic forms, but testing is not routinely performed in the clinic. Here, we used a type 1 diabetes GRS to screen for monogenic diabetes in individuals with weak evidence of autoimmunity, i.e. with a single AAb at disease onset. Methods: In a pilot study, we genetically screened 142 individuals with suspected type 1 diabetes, 42 of whom were AAb-negative, 27 of whom had a single AAb (single AAb-positive) and 73 of whom had multiple AAbs (multiple AAb-positive) at disease onset. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) was performed in 41 AAb-negative participants, 26 single AAb-positive participants and 60 multiple AAb-positive participants using an analysis pipeline of more than 200 diabetes-associated genes. Results: The type 1 diabetes GRS was significantly lower in AAb-negative individuals than in those with a single and multiple AAbs. Pathogenetic class 4/5 variants in MODY or monogenic diabetes genes were identified in 15/41 (36.6%) AAb-negative individuals, while class 3 variants of unknown significance were identified in 17/41 (41.5%). Residual C-peptide levels at diagnosis were higher in individuals with mutations compared to those without pathogenetic variants. Class 3 variants of unknown significance were found in 11/26 (42.3%) single AAb-positive individuals, and pathogenetic class 4/5 variants were present in 2/26 (7.7%) single AAb-positive individuals. No pathogenetic class 4/5 variants were identified in multiple AAb-positive individuals, but class 3 variants of unknown significance were identified in 19/60 (31.7%) patients. Several patients across the three groups had more than one class 3 variant. Conclusions/interpretation: These findings provide insights into the genetic makeup of patients who show weak evidence of autoimmunity at disease onset. Absence of islet AAbs or the presence of a single AAb together with a low type 1 diabetes GRS may be indicative of a monogenic form of diabetes, and use of NGS may improve the accuracy of diagnosis.
Endotypes
Genetic risk score
HLA
Islet autoantibodies
Targeted exome sequencing
Type 1 diabetes
Whole exome sequencing
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11768/136497
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