Machine learning (ML) and its subset, deep learning (DL), are branches of artificial intelligence (AI) showing promising findings in the medical field, especially when applied to imaging data. Given the substantial role of MRI in the diagnosis and management of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), this disease is an ideal candidate for the application of AI techniques. In this narrative review, we are going to discuss the potential applications of AI for MS clinical practice, together with their limitations. Among their several advantages, ML algorithms are able to automate repetitive tasks, to analyze more data in less time and to achieve higher accuracy and reproducibility than the human counterpart. To date, these algorithms have been applied to MS diagnosis, prognosis, disease and treatment monitoring. Other fields of application have been improvement of MRI protocols as well as automated lesion and tissue segmentation. However, several challenges remain, including a better understanding of the information selected by AI algorithms, appropriate multicenter and longitudinal validations of results and practical aspects regarding hardware and software integration. Finally, one cannot overemphasize the paramount importance of human supervision, in order to optimize the use and take full advantage of the potential of AI approaches.

Role of artificial intelligence in MS clinical practice

Bonacchi R.
Primo
;
Filippi M.
Secondo
;
Rocca M. A.
Ultimo
2022-01-01

Abstract

Machine learning (ML) and its subset, deep learning (DL), are branches of artificial intelligence (AI) showing promising findings in the medical field, especially when applied to imaging data. Given the substantial role of MRI in the diagnosis and management of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), this disease is an ideal candidate for the application of AI techniques. In this narrative review, we are going to discuss the potential applications of AI for MS clinical practice, together with their limitations. Among their several advantages, ML algorithms are able to automate repetitive tasks, to analyze more data in less time and to achieve higher accuracy and reproducibility than the human counterpart. To date, these algorithms have been applied to MS diagnosis, prognosis, disease and treatment monitoring. Other fields of application have been improvement of MRI protocols as well as automated lesion and tissue segmentation. However, several challenges remain, including a better understanding of the information selected by AI algorithms, appropriate multicenter and longitudinal validations of results and practical aspects regarding hardware and software integration. Finally, one cannot overemphasize the paramount importance of human supervision, in order to optimize the use and take full advantage of the potential of AI approaches.
2022
Artificial intelligence
Deep learning
Machine learning
MRI
Multiple sclerosis
Neural networks
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11768/138263
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