Aim: Since its relevance on diagnosis and prognosis of diabetic retinopathy (DR), this review will examine a multimodal imaging approach to detect diabetic macular ischemia (DMI). Methods: A PubMed engine search was carried out using the term “macular ischemia” paired with “diabetes,” and “diabetic macular ischemia” paired to “fluorescein angiography,” “ultra-wide field fluorescein angiography,” “optical coherence tomography angiography,” “octa,” “2D octa,” “ultra-wide field octa,” “3D octa,” “visual acuity.” All studies published in English up to October 2021 irrespective of their publication status were reviewed, and relevant publications were included in this review. Results: Recently, new technologies have been proposed as an alternative to fluorescein angiography (FA), which is an actual diagnostic gold standard technique. Nowadays, optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) has emerged as the most promising and reliable procedure able to provide a qualitative and quantitative description of DMI. Newer three-dimensional (3D) OCTA approach will be discussed too. Moreover, we will discuss how OCTA might identify preclinical alterations before the onset of DR and allow prediction about the progression of disease. Conclusion: OCTA has significantly expanded our knowledge on diabetic macular ischemia.

Diabetic macular ischemia

Tombolini B.;Borrelli E.;Sacconi R.;Bandello F.;Querques G.
2022-01-01

Abstract

Aim: Since its relevance on diagnosis and prognosis of diabetic retinopathy (DR), this review will examine a multimodal imaging approach to detect diabetic macular ischemia (DMI). Methods: A PubMed engine search was carried out using the term “macular ischemia” paired with “diabetes,” and “diabetic macular ischemia” paired to “fluorescein angiography,” “ultra-wide field fluorescein angiography,” “optical coherence tomography angiography,” “octa,” “2D octa,” “ultra-wide field octa,” “3D octa,” “visual acuity.” All studies published in English up to October 2021 irrespective of their publication status were reviewed, and relevant publications were included in this review. Results: Recently, new technologies have been proposed as an alternative to fluorescein angiography (FA), which is an actual diagnostic gold standard technique. Nowadays, optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) has emerged as the most promising and reliable procedure able to provide a qualitative and quantitative description of DMI. Newer three-dimensional (3D) OCTA approach will be discussed too. Moreover, we will discuss how OCTA might identify preclinical alterations before the onset of DR and allow prediction about the progression of disease. Conclusion: OCTA has significantly expanded our knowledge on diabetic macular ischemia.
2022
Diabetic macular ischemia
Diabetic retinopathy
Fluorescein angiography
Foveal avascular zone
Optical coherence tomography angiography
Three-dimensional
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11768/140418
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