Introduction: SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccinations elicit both virus-specific humoral and T-cell responses, but a complex interplay of different influencing factors, such as natural immunity, gender, and age, guarantees host protection. The present study aims to assess the immune dynamics of humoral, T-cell response, and influencing factors to stratify individual immunization status up to 10 months after Comirnaty-vaccine administration. Methods: To this aim, we longitudinally evaluated the magnitude and kinetics of both humoral and T-cell responses by serological tests and enzyme-linked immunospot assay at 5 time points. Furthermore, we compared the course over time of the two branches of adaptive immunity to establish an eventual correlation between adaptive responses. Lastly, we evaluated putative influencing factors collected by an anonymized survey administered to all participants through multiparametric analysis. Among 984 healthcare workers evaluated for humoral immunity, 107 individuals were further analyzed to describe SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell responses. Participants were divided into 4 age groups: <40 and ≥40 years for men, <48 and ≥48 years for women. Furthermore, results were segregated according to SARS-CoV-2-specific serostatus at baseline. Results: The disaggregated evaluation of humoral responses highlighted antibody levels decreased in older subjects. The humoral responses were higher in females than in males (p=0.002) and previously virus-exposed subjects compared to naïve subjects (p<0.001). The vaccination induced a robust SARS-CoV-2 specific T-cell response at early time points in seronegative subjects compared to baseline levels (p<0.0001). However, a contraction was observed 6 months after vaccination in this group (p<0.01). On the other hand, the pre-existing specific T-cell response detected in natural seropositive individuals was longer-lasting than the response of the seronegative subjects, decreasing only 10 months after vaccination. Our data suggest that T-cell reactiveness is poorly impacted by sex and age. Of note, SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell response was not correlated to the humoral response at any time point. Discussion: These findings suggest prospects for rescheduling vaccination strategies by considering individual immunization status, personal characteristics, and the appropriate laboratory tests to portray immunity against SARS-CoV-2 accurately. Deepening our knowledge about T and B cell dynamics might optimize the decision-making process in vaccination campaigns, tailoring it to each specific immune response.

A longitudinal analysis of humoral, T cellular response and influencing factors in a cohort of healthcare workers: Implications for personalized SARS-CoV-2 vaccination strategies / Sabetta, E.; Noviello, M.; Sciorati, C.; Vigano, M.; De Lorenzo, R.; Beretta, V.; Valtolina, V.; Di Resta, C.; Banfi, G.; Ferrari, D.; Locatelli, M.; Ciceri, F.; Bonini, C.; Rovere-Querini, P.; Tomaiuolo, R.. - In: FRONTIERS IN IMMUNOLOGY. - ISSN 1664-3224. - 14:(2023), p. 1130802. [10.3389/fimmu.2023.1130802]

A longitudinal analysis of humoral, T cellular response and influencing factors in a cohort of healthcare workers: Implications for personalized SARS-CoV-2 vaccination strategies

Sabetta E.
Primo
;
De Lorenzo R.;Di Resta C.;Banfi G.;Ciceri F.;Bonini C.;Rovere-Querini P.
Penultimo
;
Tomaiuolo R.
Ultimo
2023-01-01

Abstract

Introduction: SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccinations elicit both virus-specific humoral and T-cell responses, but a complex interplay of different influencing factors, such as natural immunity, gender, and age, guarantees host protection. The present study aims to assess the immune dynamics of humoral, T-cell response, and influencing factors to stratify individual immunization status up to 10 months after Comirnaty-vaccine administration. Methods: To this aim, we longitudinally evaluated the magnitude and kinetics of both humoral and T-cell responses by serological tests and enzyme-linked immunospot assay at 5 time points. Furthermore, we compared the course over time of the two branches of adaptive immunity to establish an eventual correlation between adaptive responses. Lastly, we evaluated putative influencing factors collected by an anonymized survey administered to all participants through multiparametric analysis. Among 984 healthcare workers evaluated for humoral immunity, 107 individuals were further analyzed to describe SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell responses. Participants were divided into 4 age groups: <40 and ≥40 years for men, <48 and ≥48 years for women. Furthermore, results were segregated according to SARS-CoV-2-specific serostatus at baseline. Results: The disaggregated evaluation of humoral responses highlighted antibody levels decreased in older subjects. The humoral responses were higher in females than in males (p=0.002) and previously virus-exposed subjects compared to naïve subjects (p<0.001). The vaccination induced a robust SARS-CoV-2 specific T-cell response at early time points in seronegative subjects compared to baseline levels (p<0.0001). However, a contraction was observed 6 months after vaccination in this group (p<0.01). On the other hand, the pre-existing specific T-cell response detected in natural seropositive individuals was longer-lasting than the response of the seronegative subjects, decreasing only 10 months after vaccination. Our data suggest that T-cell reactiveness is poorly impacted by sex and age. Of note, SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell response was not correlated to the humoral response at any time point. Discussion: These findings suggest prospects for rescheduling vaccination strategies by considering individual immunization status, personal characteristics, and the appropriate laboratory tests to portray immunity against SARS-CoV-2 accurately. Deepening our knowledge about T and B cell dynamics might optimize the decision-making process in vaccination campaigns, tailoring it to each specific immune response.
2023
COVID-19
influencing factors (variables)
SARS-CoV-2 vaccination
serological tests and risk factors
T-cell response
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
fimmu-14-1130802.pdf

accesso aperto

Tipologia: PDF editoriale (versione pubblicata dall'editore)
Licenza: Creative commons
Dimensione 3.29 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
3.29 MB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11768/141136
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 1
  • Scopus 4
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 3
social impact