Microvesicles (MVs) are released from almost all cell brain types into the microenvironment and are emerging as a novel way of cell-to-cell communication. This review focuses on MVs discharged by microglial cells, the brain resident myeloid cells, which comprise ~10-12% of brain population. We summarize first evidence indicating that MV shedding is a process activated by the ATP receptor P2X7 and that shed MVs represent a secretory pathway for the inflammatory cytokine IL-β. We then discuss subsequent findings which clarify how IL-1 P can be locally processed and released from MVs into the extracellular environment. In addition, we describe the current understanding about the mechanism of P2X 7-dependent MV formation and membrane abscission, which, by involving sphingomyelinase activity and ceramide formation, may share similarities with exosome biogenesis. Finally we report our recent results which show that microglia-derived MVs can stimulate neuronal activity and participate to the propagation of inflammatory signals, and suggest new areas for future investigation.

Microglial microvesicle secretion and intercellular signaling / Turola, E.; Furlan, R.; Bianco, F.; Matteoli, M.; Verderio, C.. - In: FRONTIERS IN PHYSIOLOGY. - ISSN 1664-042X. - 3:(2012), pp. 1-11. [10.3389/fphys.2012.00149]

Microglial microvesicle secretion and intercellular signaling

R. Furlan
Secondo
;
2012-01-01

Abstract

Microvesicles (MVs) are released from almost all cell brain types into the microenvironment and are emerging as a novel way of cell-to-cell communication. This review focuses on MVs discharged by microglial cells, the brain resident myeloid cells, which comprise ~10-12% of brain population. We summarize first evidence indicating that MV shedding is a process activated by the ATP receptor P2X7 and that shed MVs represent a secretory pathway for the inflammatory cytokine IL-β. We then discuss subsequent findings which clarify how IL-1 P can be locally processed and released from MVs into the extracellular environment. In addition, we describe the current understanding about the mechanism of P2X 7-dependent MV formation and membrane abscission, which, by involving sphingomyelinase activity and ceramide formation, may share similarities with exosome biogenesis. Finally we report our recent results which show that microglia-derived MVs can stimulate neuronal activity and participate to the propagation of inflammatory signals, and suggest new areas for future investigation.
2012
Brain inflammation
IL-beta
Microglial cells
Microvesicles
Neuronal activity
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11768/141265
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