Background: COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is often managed with mechanical ventilation (MV), requiring sedation and paralysis, with associated risk of complications. There is limited evidence on the use of high flow nasal cannula (HFNC). We hypothesized that management of COVID-19 ARDS without MV is feasible. Methods: Included were all adult patients diagnosed with COVID-19 ARDS, with PaO2/FiO2 ratio <100 at admission, and whose management was initially performed without MV. We evaluated need for intubation during ICU stay, mortality and hospital/ICU length of stay (LOS). Results: Out of 118 patients, 41 were managed only with HFNC from hospital admission (and at least during first 24 hours in ICU) and had a PaO2/FiO2 ratio <100 (72.9±13.0). 29/41 patients never required MV: 24 of them survived and were discharged home. Their median ICU LOS was 11 (7-17) days, and their hospital LOS was 29 (18-45) days. We identified PaO2/FiO2 ratio at ICU admission as the only significant predictor for need for MV during ICU stay. We also identified age, length of non-invasive respiratory support before ICU admission, mean value of PaO2/FiO2 ratio during first half and whole ICU stay as predictors of mortality. Conclusions: It is safe to monitor in ICU and use HFNC in patients affected by COVID-19 ARDS who initially present data suggesting an early need for intubation. The 41 patients admitted with a PaO2/FiO2 ratio <100 and initially treated only with HFNC show a 22% mortality that is in the lower range of what is reported in recent literature.

Feasibility, safety and efficacy of COVID-19 severe acute respiratory distress syndrome management without invasive mechanical ventilation / Guzzo, Francesca; Lombardi, Gaetano; Tozzi, Margherita; Calvi, Maria R; Azzolini, Maria L; Alba, Ada C; Tamà, Simona; D'Amico, Matteo M; Belletti, Alessandro; Frassanito, Claudia; Palumbo, Diego; Doronzio, Andrea; Ravizza, Alfredo; Landoni, Giovanni; Dell'Acqua, Antonio; Beretta, Luigi; Zangrillo, Alberto. - In: MINERVA ANESTESIOLOGICA. - ISSN 0375-9393. - (2023), pp. 1013-1021. [10.23736/S0375-9393.23.17418-9]

Feasibility, safety and efficacy of COVID-19 severe acute respiratory distress syndrome management without invasive mechanical ventilation

Lombardi, Gaetano
Secondo
;
Tozzi, Margherita;Alba, Ada C;Tamà, Simona;Belletti, Alessandro;Frassanito, Claudia;Palumbo, Diego;Landoni, Giovanni;Beretta, Luigi
Penultimo
;
Zangrillo, Alberto
Ultimo
2023-01-01

Abstract

Background: COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is often managed with mechanical ventilation (MV), requiring sedation and paralysis, with associated risk of complications. There is limited evidence on the use of high flow nasal cannula (HFNC). We hypothesized that management of COVID-19 ARDS without MV is feasible. Methods: Included were all adult patients diagnosed with COVID-19 ARDS, with PaO2/FiO2 ratio <100 at admission, and whose management was initially performed without MV. We evaluated need for intubation during ICU stay, mortality and hospital/ICU length of stay (LOS). Results: Out of 118 patients, 41 were managed only with HFNC from hospital admission (and at least during first 24 hours in ICU) and had a PaO2/FiO2 ratio <100 (72.9±13.0). 29/41 patients never required MV: 24 of them survived and were discharged home. Their median ICU LOS was 11 (7-17) days, and their hospital LOS was 29 (18-45) days. We identified PaO2/FiO2 ratio at ICU admission as the only significant predictor for need for MV during ICU stay. We also identified age, length of non-invasive respiratory support before ICU admission, mean value of PaO2/FiO2 ratio during first half and whole ICU stay as predictors of mortality. Conclusions: It is safe to monitor in ICU and use HFNC in patients affected by COVID-19 ARDS who initially present data suggesting an early need for intubation. The 41 patients admitted with a PaO2/FiO2 ratio <100 and initially treated only with HFNC show a 22% mortality that is in the lower range of what is reported in recent literature.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11768/151616
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