Objectives: Four-class drug-resistant (4DR) people living with HIV (PLWH) are a fragile population with a high burden of disease. No data on their inflammation and T-cell exhaustion markers are currently available. Methods: Inflammation, immune activation and microbial translocation biomarkers were measured through ELISA in 30 4DR-PLWH with HIV-1 RNA ≥ 50 copies/mL, 30 non-viremic 4DR-PLWH and 20 non-viremic non-4DR-PLWH. Groups were matched by age, gender and smoking habit. T-cell activation and exhaustion markers were assessed by flow cytometry in 4DR-PLWH. An inflammation burden score (IBS) was calculated from soluble marker levels and associated factors were estimated through multivariate regression. Results: The highest plasma biomarker concentrations were observed in viremic 4DR-PLWH, the lowest ones in non-4DR-PLWH. Endotoxin core immunoglobulin G showed an opposite trend. Among 4DR-PLWH, CD38/HLA-DR and PD-1 were more expressed on CD4+ (p = 0.019 and 0.034, respectively) and CD8+ (p = 0.002 and 0.032, respectively) cells of viremic compared to non-viremic subjects. An increased IBS was significantly associated with 4DR condition, higher values of viral load and a previous cancer diagnosis. Conclusions: Multidrug-resistant HIV infection is associated with a higher IBS, even when viremia is undetectable. Therapeutic approaches aimed to reduce inflammation and T-cell exhaustion in 4DR-PLWH need to be investigated.

Inflammation burden score in multidrug-resistant HIV-1 infection / Clemente, T.; Caccia, R.; Galli, L.; Galli, A.; Poli, A.; Marchetti, G. C.; Bandera, A.; Zazzi, M.; Santoro, M. M.; Cinque, P.; Castagna, A.; Spagnuolo, V.. - In: JOURNAL OF INFECTION. - ISSN 0163-4453. - 86:5(2023), pp. 453-461. [10.1016/j.jinf.2023.03.011]

Inflammation burden score in multidrug-resistant HIV-1 infection

Clemente T.
Primo
;
Galli A.;Poli A.;Castagna A.
Penultimo
;
Spagnuolo V.
Ultimo
2023-01-01

Abstract

Objectives: Four-class drug-resistant (4DR) people living with HIV (PLWH) are a fragile population with a high burden of disease. No data on their inflammation and T-cell exhaustion markers are currently available. Methods: Inflammation, immune activation and microbial translocation biomarkers were measured through ELISA in 30 4DR-PLWH with HIV-1 RNA ≥ 50 copies/mL, 30 non-viremic 4DR-PLWH and 20 non-viremic non-4DR-PLWH. Groups were matched by age, gender and smoking habit. T-cell activation and exhaustion markers were assessed by flow cytometry in 4DR-PLWH. An inflammation burden score (IBS) was calculated from soluble marker levels and associated factors were estimated through multivariate regression. Results: The highest plasma biomarker concentrations were observed in viremic 4DR-PLWH, the lowest ones in non-4DR-PLWH. Endotoxin core immunoglobulin G showed an opposite trend. Among 4DR-PLWH, CD38/HLA-DR and PD-1 were more expressed on CD4+ (p = 0.019 and 0.034, respectively) and CD8+ (p = 0.002 and 0.032, respectively) cells of viremic compared to non-viremic subjects. An increased IBS was significantly associated with 4DR condition, higher values of viral load and a previous cancer diagnosis. Conclusions: Multidrug-resistant HIV infection is associated with a higher IBS, even when viremia is undetectable. Therapeutic approaches aimed to reduce inflammation and T-cell exhaustion in 4DR-PLWH need to be investigated.
2023
Bacterial translocation
Drug resistance
HIV
Immune activation
Immunosenescence
Inflammation
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11768/152647
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