Pure seminomas represent the majority of testicular germ cell tumors and accurate diagnosis and staging require an accurate sampling of radical orchiectomy specimens. The aim of our study is to find the most informative gross sampling method for orchiectomy specimens. We performed the extensive sampling of 88 radical orchiectomy specimens embedding in their entirety testicular hilum, rete testis, hilar soft tissue, and spermatic cord. We examined the impact of this procedure on tumor stage, prognostic parameters (lymphovascular invasion and infiltration of rete testis, epididymis, tunica vaginalis, and spermatic cord), and their relationship with recurrence. Eighty-eight seminomas from 88 radical orchiectomies were sampled. Seventy-seven cases (87.5%) presented as clinical stage I and 11 cases (12.5%) as clinical stage II. The follow-up period range was 18–54 months and 82 patients (93.2%) had a minimum of 2-year follow-up. Tumor size ranged from 0.4 to 16 cm (mean 3.6) requiring a mean of 7.1 sections for entire tumoral sampling. Epididymis required 2 to 8 sections (mean 3.3), and hilum and hilar soft tissues 2 to 9 sections (mean 3.4). Epididymal infiltration and lymphovascular invasion resulted significant at multivariate analysis generating a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve with area under curve of 0.778. All the other parameters (except for pagetoid rete testis infiltration) were significant to predict metastasis only at univariate analysis. Extensive sampling of radical orchiectomy specimens does not improve the accuracy of staging in pure seminomas. Lymphovascular invasion and epididymal infiltration are useful to predict metastasis.
Total embedding of spermatic cord and hilar soft tissue in orchiectomy for seminoma: does the extensive sampling improve pathologic risk factors? / Colecchia, M.; Paolini, B.; Pini, G. M.; Carpenito, L.; Maghini, B.; Avuzzi, B.; Paganoni, A. M.; Nicolai, N.. - In: VIRCHOWS ARCHIV. - ISSN 0945-6317. - 481:5(2022), pp. 695-701. [10.1007/s00428-022-03370-z]