Background: In recent years, several studies focused on the process of reprogramming of seminoma (S) cells, which regulates the transition from pure S (P-S) to S component (S-C) of mixed germ cell tumors of the testis (GCTT) and finally to embryonal carcinoma (EC) and other nonseminomatous GCTT (NS-GCTT). The accepted pathogenetic model is driven and regulated by cells (macrophages, B- and T-lymphocytes) and molecules of the tumor microenvironment (TME). Herein, we tested a series of GCTT with double staining (DS) for CD68-PD-L1 to evaluate tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) expressing programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) [TAMs PD-L1(+)] and clarify if these cells may be involved in establishing the fate of GCTT. Methods: We collected 45 GCTT (comprising a total of 62 different components of GCTT). TAMs PD-L1(+) were evaluated with three different scoring systems [TAMs PD-L1(+)/mm2, TAMs PD-L1(+)/mm2 H-score, TAMs PD-L1(+) %], and compared using pertinent statistic tests (Student's t-test and Mann-Whitney U test). Results: We found that TAMs PD-L1(+) values were higher in S rather than EC (p = 0.001, p = 0.015, p = 0.022) and NS-GCTT (p < 0.001). P-S showed statistically significant differences in TAMs PD-L1(+) values compared to S-C (p < 0.001, p = 0.006, p = 0.015), but there were no differences between S-C and EC (p = 0.107, p = 0.408, p = 0.800). Finally, we found statistically significant differences also in TAMs PD-L1(+) values between EC and other NS-GCTT (p < 0.001). Conclusions: TAMs PD-L1(+) levels gradually decrease during the reprogramming of S cells {P-S [(high values of TAMs PD-L1(+)] → S-C and EC [(intermediate values of TAMs PD-L1(+)] → other NS-GCTT [(low values of TAMs PD-L1(+)], supporting a complex pathogenetic model where the interactions between tumor cells and TME components [and specifically TAMs PD-L1(+)] play a key role in determining the fate of GCTT.

TAMs PD-L1(+) in the reprogramming of germ cell tumors of the testis / Melotti, S.; Ambrosi, F.; Franceschini, T.; Giunchi, F.; Filippo, G. D.; Franchini, E.; Massari, F.; Mollica, V.; Tateo, V.; Bianchi, F. M.; Colecchia, M.; Acosta, A. M.; Lobo, J.; Fiorentino, M.; Ricci, C.. - In: PATHOLOGY RESEARCH AND PRACTICE. - ISSN 0344-0338. - 247:(2023). [10.1016/j.prp.2023.154540]

TAMs PD-L1(+) in the reprogramming of germ cell tumors of the testis

Colecchia M.;
2023-01-01

Abstract

Background: In recent years, several studies focused on the process of reprogramming of seminoma (S) cells, which regulates the transition from pure S (P-S) to S component (S-C) of mixed germ cell tumors of the testis (GCTT) and finally to embryonal carcinoma (EC) and other nonseminomatous GCTT (NS-GCTT). The accepted pathogenetic model is driven and regulated by cells (macrophages, B- and T-lymphocytes) and molecules of the tumor microenvironment (TME). Herein, we tested a series of GCTT with double staining (DS) for CD68-PD-L1 to evaluate tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) expressing programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) [TAMs PD-L1(+)] and clarify if these cells may be involved in establishing the fate of GCTT. Methods: We collected 45 GCTT (comprising a total of 62 different components of GCTT). TAMs PD-L1(+) were evaluated with three different scoring systems [TAMs PD-L1(+)/mm2, TAMs PD-L1(+)/mm2 H-score, TAMs PD-L1(+) %], and compared using pertinent statistic tests (Student's t-test and Mann-Whitney U test). Results: We found that TAMs PD-L1(+) values were higher in S rather than EC (p = 0.001, p = 0.015, p = 0.022) and NS-GCTT (p < 0.001). P-S showed statistically significant differences in TAMs PD-L1(+) values compared to S-C (p < 0.001, p = 0.006, p = 0.015), but there were no differences between S-C and EC (p = 0.107, p = 0.408, p = 0.800). Finally, we found statistically significant differences also in TAMs PD-L1(+) values between EC and other NS-GCTT (p < 0.001). Conclusions: TAMs PD-L1(+) levels gradually decrease during the reprogramming of S cells {P-S [(high values of TAMs PD-L1(+)] → S-C and EC [(intermediate values of TAMs PD-L1(+)] → other NS-GCTT [(low values of TAMs PD-L1(+)], supporting a complex pathogenetic model where the interactions between tumor cells and TME components [and specifically TAMs PD-L1(+)] play a key role in determining the fate of GCTT.
2023
Germ cell tumors of the testis
PD-L1
Reprogramming
TAMs
Tumor-associated macrophages
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11768/152956
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