Background: Systemic inflammation has been proposed as a relevant mechanism in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Still, comprehensive data on ALS patients' innate and adaptive immune responses and their effect on the clinical phenotype are lacking. Here, we investigate systemic immunity in a population-based ALS cohort using readily available hematological indexes. Methods: We collected clinical data and the complete blood count (CBC) at diagnosis in ALS patients from the Piemonte and Valle d'Aosta Register for ALS (PARALS) from 2007 to 2019. Leukocytes populations, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), systemic-immune-inflammation index (SII), and lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) were derived from CBC. All variables were analyzed for association with clinical features in the entire cohort and then in sex- and age-based subgroups. Results: Neutrophils (P = 0.001) and markers of increased innate immunity (NLR, P = 0.008 and SII, P = 0.006) were associated with a faster disease progression. Similarly, elevated innate immunity correlated with worse pulmonary function and shorter survival. The prognosis in women also correlated with low lymphocytes (P = 0.045) and a decreased LMR (P = 0.013). ALS patients with cognitive impairment exhibited lower monocytes (P = 0.0415). Conclusions and relevance: The dysregulation of the systemic immune system plays a multifaceted role in ALS. More specifically, an elevated innate immune response is associated with faster progression and reduced survival. Conversely, ALS patients with cognitive impairment showed a reduction in monocyte count. Additionally, immune response varied according to sex and age, thus suggesting that involved immune pathways are patient specific. Further studies will help translate those findings into clinical practice or targeted treatments.

The role of peripheral immunity in ALS: a population-based study / Grassano, Maurizio; Manera, Umberto; De Marchi, Fabiola; Cugnasco, Paolo; Matteoni, Enrico; Daviddi, Margherita; Solero, Luca; Bombaci, Alessandro; Palumbo, Francesca; Vasta, Rosario; Canosa, Antonio; Salamone, Paolina; Fuda, Giuseppe; Casale, Federico; Mazzini, Letizia; Calvo, Andrea; Moglia, Cristina; Chiò, Adriano. - In: ANNALS OF CLINICAL AND TRANSLATIONAL NEUROLOGY. - ISSN 2328-9503. - 10:9(2023), pp. 1623-1632. [10.1002/acn3.51853]

The role of peripheral immunity in ALS: a population-based study

Bombaci, Alessandro;
2023-01-01

Abstract

Background: Systemic inflammation has been proposed as a relevant mechanism in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Still, comprehensive data on ALS patients' innate and adaptive immune responses and their effect on the clinical phenotype are lacking. Here, we investigate systemic immunity in a population-based ALS cohort using readily available hematological indexes. Methods: We collected clinical data and the complete blood count (CBC) at diagnosis in ALS patients from the Piemonte and Valle d'Aosta Register for ALS (PARALS) from 2007 to 2019. Leukocytes populations, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), systemic-immune-inflammation index (SII), and lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) were derived from CBC. All variables were analyzed for association with clinical features in the entire cohort and then in sex- and age-based subgroups. Results: Neutrophils (P = 0.001) and markers of increased innate immunity (NLR, P = 0.008 and SII, P = 0.006) were associated with a faster disease progression. Similarly, elevated innate immunity correlated with worse pulmonary function and shorter survival. The prognosis in women also correlated with low lymphocytes (P = 0.045) and a decreased LMR (P = 0.013). ALS patients with cognitive impairment exhibited lower monocytes (P = 0.0415). Conclusions and relevance: The dysregulation of the systemic immune system plays a multifaceted role in ALS. More specifically, an elevated innate immune response is associated with faster progression and reduced survival. Conversely, ALS patients with cognitive impairment showed a reduction in monocyte count. Additionally, immune response varied according to sex and age, thus suggesting that involved immune pathways are patient specific. Further studies will help translate those findings into clinical practice or targeted treatments.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11768/159123
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