Background: Nonspecific clinical manifestations and unclear radiological features may delay treatment initiation in pediatric patients with Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE). The aim of this study is to analyze the clinical and radiological features of the disease. Methods: Clinical, laboratory, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were obtained retrospectively from a group of 37 hospitalized pediatric patients older than two months and with a polymerase chain reaction-confirmed HSE diagnosis. Clinical severity (i.e., mechanical ventilatory support) and outcome at discharge (i.e., pediatric modified Rankin Scale [ped-mRS]) were also assessed. Results: Median age was 14 months (interquartile range: 10-36). All patients survived, 15 (41%) had complete recovery (i.e., ped-mRS = 0), and 10 (27%) had significant residual disability at discharge (i.e., ped-mRS ≥3). Brain MRI was obtained in 31 patients. T2-hyperintense lesions were usually bilateral (28, 90%) and multifocal (30, 97%). Hemorrhage and mass effect were observed in 13 (42%) and 15 (48%) patients, respectively. Parenchymal lesions involved the temporal lobes (94%), insula (90%), parietal lobes (84%), and frontal lobes (61%). Occipital lesions were rare. In multivariable binary logistic regression models the presence of altered consciousness was associated with mechanical ventilation (odds ratio [OR] = 8.2, Nagelkerke R2 = 0.22), whereas the involvement of the occipital lobes (OR = 7.8) and the administration of vasopressors (OR = 12.1) were independent predictors of poor outcome (Nagelkerke R2 = 0.41). Conclusions: Brain MRI is useful for diagnosis and outcome assessment in pediatric HSE. Radiological patterns with common frontotemporal involvement overlap adults, but multifocal and parietal lobe abnormalities are observed as well.

Radiological Features of Herpetic Encephalitis in Children / Pham, Thai Son; Montini, Federico; Pham, Hoang Nhat; Nguyen Tran, Minh-Thu; Huy, Nguyen Tien; Cacciaguerra, Laura; Filippi, Massimo. - In: PEDIATRIC NEUROLOGY. - ISSN 0887-8994. - 156:(2024), pp. 99-105. [10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2024.03.035]

Radiological Features of Herpetic Encephalitis in Children

Montini, Federico
Secondo
;
Cacciaguerra, Laura
Penultimo
;
Filippi, Massimo
Ultimo
2024-01-01

Abstract

Background: Nonspecific clinical manifestations and unclear radiological features may delay treatment initiation in pediatric patients with Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE). The aim of this study is to analyze the clinical and radiological features of the disease. Methods: Clinical, laboratory, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were obtained retrospectively from a group of 37 hospitalized pediatric patients older than two months and with a polymerase chain reaction-confirmed HSE diagnosis. Clinical severity (i.e., mechanical ventilatory support) and outcome at discharge (i.e., pediatric modified Rankin Scale [ped-mRS]) were also assessed. Results: Median age was 14 months (interquartile range: 10-36). All patients survived, 15 (41%) had complete recovery (i.e., ped-mRS = 0), and 10 (27%) had significant residual disability at discharge (i.e., ped-mRS ≥3). Brain MRI was obtained in 31 patients. T2-hyperintense lesions were usually bilateral (28, 90%) and multifocal (30, 97%). Hemorrhage and mass effect were observed in 13 (42%) and 15 (48%) patients, respectively. Parenchymal lesions involved the temporal lobes (94%), insula (90%), parietal lobes (84%), and frontal lobes (61%). Occipital lesions were rare. In multivariable binary logistic regression models the presence of altered consciousness was associated with mechanical ventilation (odds ratio [OR] = 8.2, Nagelkerke R2 = 0.22), whereas the involvement of the occipital lobes (OR = 7.8) and the administration of vasopressors (OR = 12.1) were independent predictors of poor outcome (Nagelkerke R2 = 0.41). Conclusions: Brain MRI is useful for diagnosis and outcome assessment in pediatric HSE. Radiological patterns with common frontotemporal involvement overlap adults, but multifocal and parietal lobe abnormalities are observed as well.
2024
Herpetic encephalitis
MRI
Pediatric
Prognosis
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11768/160782
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