The term IgG4-related autoimmune liver disease (AILD) refers to hepato-biliary manifestations of Immunoglobin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) including IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis and IgG4-related pseudotumor. The association of some forms of autoimmune hepatitis to IgG4-RD remains controversial. Although autoimmune phenomena have not been clearly observed in IgG4-AILD, perturbation of the adaptive immune system and activation of the humoral response represent established pathophysiological hallmarks and potential therapeutic targets. Clinical manifestations of IgG4-AILD are virtually indistinguishable from bile duct cancer or primary sclerosing cholangitis and are due to mass forming lesions and thickening of the biliary tract that progressively lead to biliary ducts obstruction. There are no current reliable biomarkers for IgG4-AILD and diagnosis should rely on the integration of clinical, serological, radiological, and histological findings. In analogy to most IgG4-RD manifestations, and in contrast to its major mimickers, IgG4-AILD promptly responds to glucocorticoids but frequently relapses, thus requiring long-term maintenance therapy to avoid progressive fibrosclerotic disease and liver cirrhosis. Accumulating evidence on the efficacy of B-cell depletion therapy in patients with systemic IgG4-RD is gradually changing the treatment paradigm of IgG4-AILD and biologics will be increasingly used also for gastroenterological manifestations of IgG4-RD to spare glucocorticoids and traditional immunosuppressive agents. Looking ahead, identification of reliable biomarkers and of mini-invasive strategies to obtain informative biopsies from the biliary tree represent unavoidable priorities to optimize diagnosis and management of IgG4-AILD.

IgG4-related autoimmune liver disease / Capurso, G.; Pedica, F.; Palumbo, D.; Della-Torre, E.. - In: MINERVA GASTROENTEROLOGY. - ISSN 2724-5985. - 69:1(2023), pp. 23-49. [10.23736/S2724-5895.20.02794-4]

IgG4-related autoimmune liver disease

Capurso G.
Primo
;
Pedica F.
Secondo
;
Palumbo D.
Penultimo
;
Della-Torre E.
Ultimo
2023-01-01

Abstract

The term IgG4-related autoimmune liver disease (AILD) refers to hepato-biliary manifestations of Immunoglobin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) including IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis and IgG4-related pseudotumor. The association of some forms of autoimmune hepatitis to IgG4-RD remains controversial. Although autoimmune phenomena have not been clearly observed in IgG4-AILD, perturbation of the adaptive immune system and activation of the humoral response represent established pathophysiological hallmarks and potential therapeutic targets. Clinical manifestations of IgG4-AILD are virtually indistinguishable from bile duct cancer or primary sclerosing cholangitis and are due to mass forming lesions and thickening of the biliary tract that progressively lead to biliary ducts obstruction. There are no current reliable biomarkers for IgG4-AILD and diagnosis should rely on the integration of clinical, serological, radiological, and histological findings. In analogy to most IgG4-RD manifestations, and in contrast to its major mimickers, IgG4-AILD promptly responds to glucocorticoids but frequently relapses, thus requiring long-term maintenance therapy to avoid progressive fibrosclerotic disease and liver cirrhosis. Accumulating evidence on the efficacy of B-cell depletion therapy in patients with systemic IgG4-RD is gradually changing the treatment paradigm of IgG4-AILD and biologics will be increasingly used also for gastroenterological manifestations of IgG4-RD to spare glucocorticoids and traditional immunosuppressive agents. Looking ahead, identification of reliable biomarkers and of mini-invasive strategies to obtain informative biopsies from the biliary tree represent unavoidable priorities to optimize diagnosis and management of IgG4-AILD.
2023
Autoimmune pancreatitis
Cholangitis
Hepatitis
Immunoglobin G
Immunoglobin G4-related disease
Liver
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11768/163297
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 1
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? ND
social impact