Vitreoretinal lymphoma (VRL) is a rare B-cell intraocular neoplasia characterized by poor long-term prognosis and lack of effective therapies. It mainly involves the vitreous humor, the retina, and the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), although anterior segment involvement can occur. VRL is classified as a lymphoma of immune privileged sites, along with testis lymphoma and primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). VRL and PCNSL are strictly connected indeed: 80% of VRL develop PCNSL, while 20% of patients with PCNSL present VRL during natural history of lymphoma. Due to the lack of worldwide consensus about diagnosis, therapy, and follow-up timing, VRL represents one of the most challenging ocular affections. VRL commonly masquerades as a posterior uveitis, and misdiagnosis often occurs because of partial response to top- ical steroids. Gold standard for diagnosis is cytological analysis of vitreous humor. However, this technique lacks sensitivity and supplemental molecular analyses can improve the diagnostic process. Multimodal imaging allows ophthalmologists to empower their clinical suspicion and a comprehensive examination can highlight typical features of VRL and justify further invasive procedures. There is no consensus about VRL therapy, and none of the therapeutical scheme has demonstrated to prevent cerebral involvement and improve patient’s overall survival. Intravitreal injections of chemotherapeutics drugs, ocular radiation therapy and systemic chemotherapy can be considered in the treatment of VRL. Once cerebral involvement occurs, sys- temic chemotherapy must be included in the treatment as a life-saving therapy. Further multicentric studies are required to find out the best treatment of patients with VRL.

A comprehensive overview of diagnosis, imaging and treatment of vitreoretinal lymphoma / Menean, M; Giuffrè, C; Cicinelli, Mv; Marchese, A; Modorati, G; Bandello, F; Miserocchi, E. - In: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF OPHTHALMOLOGY. - ISSN 1120-6721. - (In corso di stampa). [Epub ahead of print] [10.1177/11206721231211931]

A comprehensive overview of diagnosis, imaging and treatment of vitreoretinal lymphoma

Menean M
Primo
;
Cicinelli MV;Marchese A;Bandello F
Penultimo
;
Miserocchi E
Ultimo
In corso di stampa

Abstract

Vitreoretinal lymphoma (VRL) is a rare B-cell intraocular neoplasia characterized by poor long-term prognosis and lack of effective therapies. It mainly involves the vitreous humor, the retina, and the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), although anterior segment involvement can occur. VRL is classified as a lymphoma of immune privileged sites, along with testis lymphoma and primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). VRL and PCNSL are strictly connected indeed: 80% of VRL develop PCNSL, while 20% of patients with PCNSL present VRL during natural history of lymphoma. Due to the lack of worldwide consensus about diagnosis, therapy, and follow-up timing, VRL represents one of the most challenging ocular affections. VRL commonly masquerades as a posterior uveitis, and misdiagnosis often occurs because of partial response to top- ical steroids. Gold standard for diagnosis is cytological analysis of vitreous humor. However, this technique lacks sensitivity and supplemental molecular analyses can improve the diagnostic process. Multimodal imaging allows ophthalmologists to empower their clinical suspicion and a comprehensive examination can highlight typical features of VRL and justify further invasive procedures. There is no consensus about VRL therapy, and none of the therapeutical scheme has demonstrated to prevent cerebral involvement and improve patient’s overall survival. Intravitreal injections of chemotherapeutics drugs, ocular radiation therapy and systemic chemotherapy can be considered in the treatment of VRL. Once cerebral involvement occurs, sys- temic chemotherapy must be included in the treatment as a life-saving therapy. Further multicentric studies are required to find out the best treatment of patients with VRL.
In corso di stampa
Vitreoretinal lymphoma, uveitis, multimodal imaging, primary central nervous system lymphoma, intravitreal chemotherapy, diagnostic vitrectomy, MYD88
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11768/165427
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