Purpose: Hydroxyurea (HU) is a cytoreductive agent used as standard treatment option for sickle cell anaemia/disease (SCD), essential thrombocythemia (ET), and polycythaemia vera (PV). Despite its overall good safety profile, its use also in relatively young patients raises an interest on its potential impact on spermatogenesis. To perform a systematic review of all published articles investigating fertility in male patients affected by SCD, ET, and PV and treated with HU. Two paradigmatic case reports of patients affected by PV and ET, respectively, have been also reported.Materials and Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were queried for all the published studies indexed up to November 15th, 2022. A combination of the following keywords was used: "hydroxyurea," "fertility," "male," "sperm," "sickle cell anaemia," "sickle cell disease," "essential thrombocythemia," "polycythaemia vera."Results: Of 48 articles identified, 8 studies, involving 161 patients, were eligible for inclusion. Overall, the number of spermatogonia per round cross section of seminiferous tubule were decreased in patients with SCD compared to healthy males. HU treatment was always associated with a worsening of semen parameters, even up to azoospermia. Notably, treatment discontinuation was associated with an improvement of semen parameters and a trend toward normalization in the case of PV and ET, with a less clear amelioration in men with SCD. In both our patients with either PV or ET, HU discontinuation was associated with a significant improvement of spermatogenesis with successful spontaneous pregnancies. Conclusions: Published evidence do not consistently report normalization of spermatogenesis after HU discontinuation in SCD cases. Conversely, the literature almost consistently reported an improvement of semen parameters at the discontinuation of HU therapy in PV and ET cases. Our real-life two cases confirmed those findings. The willing of fatherhood and the need for effective fertility treatment warrant further research to improve work-up management in men with hematological disorders.

Impact of Hydroxyurea to Treat Haematological Disorders on Male Fertility: Two Case Reports and a Systematic Review / Cilio, Simone; Fallara, Giuseppe; Teresa Lupo Stanghellini, Maria; Ciceri, Fabio; Montorsi, Francesco; Lunghi, Francesca; Salonia, Andrea. - In: THE WORLD JOURNAL OF MEN'S HEALTH. - ISSN 2287-4208. - (2024). [10.5534/wjmh.230069]

Impact of Hydroxyurea to Treat Haematological Disorders on Male Fertility: Two Case Reports and a Systematic Review

Giuseppe Fallara
Secondo
;
Fabio Ciceri;Francesco Montorsi;Andrea Salonia
Ultimo
2024-01-01

Abstract

Purpose: Hydroxyurea (HU) is a cytoreductive agent used as standard treatment option for sickle cell anaemia/disease (SCD), essential thrombocythemia (ET), and polycythaemia vera (PV). Despite its overall good safety profile, its use also in relatively young patients raises an interest on its potential impact on spermatogenesis. To perform a systematic review of all published articles investigating fertility in male patients affected by SCD, ET, and PV and treated with HU. Two paradigmatic case reports of patients affected by PV and ET, respectively, have been also reported.Materials and Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were queried for all the published studies indexed up to November 15th, 2022. A combination of the following keywords was used: "hydroxyurea," "fertility," "male," "sperm," "sickle cell anaemia," "sickle cell disease," "essential thrombocythemia," "polycythaemia vera."Results: Of 48 articles identified, 8 studies, involving 161 patients, were eligible for inclusion. Overall, the number of spermatogonia per round cross section of seminiferous tubule were decreased in patients with SCD compared to healthy males. HU treatment was always associated with a worsening of semen parameters, even up to azoospermia. Notably, treatment discontinuation was associated with an improvement of semen parameters and a trend toward normalization in the case of PV and ET, with a less clear amelioration in men with SCD. In both our patients with either PV or ET, HU discontinuation was associated with a significant improvement of spermatogenesis with successful spontaneous pregnancies. Conclusions: Published evidence do not consistently report normalization of spermatogenesis after HU discontinuation in SCD cases. Conversely, the literature almost consistently reported an improvement of semen parameters at the discontinuation of HU therapy in PV and ET cases. Our real-life two cases confirmed those findings. The willing of fatherhood and the need for effective fertility treatment warrant further research to improve work-up management in men with hematological disorders.
2024
Anemia; sickle cell;Fertility;Hydroxyurea;Polycythemia vera;Thrombocythemiaessential
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11768/165536
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