Transplantation is the treatment of choice for many diseases that result in organ failure, but its success is limited by organ rejection. Stem cell therapy has emerged in the last years as a promising strategy for the induction of tolerance after organ transplantation. Here we discuss the ability of different stem cell types, in particular mesenchymal stromal cells, neuronal stem/progenitor cells, hematopoietic stem cells and embryonic stem cells, to modulate the immune response and induce peripheral or central tolerance. These stem cells have been studied to explore tolerance induction to several transplanted organs, such as heart, liver and kidney. Different strategies, including approaches to generating tolerance in islet transplantation, are discussed here.
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