AIMS: The study was designed to compare a combined aerobic and resistance training (ART) with an aerobic training (AT) over hemodynamic, glucose metabolism and endothelial factors, adipokines and pro-inflammatory marker release in a population of obese type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: Forty-seven patients were randomly assigned to aerobic (27 patients) or aerobic plus resistance (20 patients) exercise trainings, on the top of a diet regime. Anthropometric, metabolic, hormonal and inflammatory variables were measured at hospitalization and discharge. RESULTS: Both exercise programs equally improved body weight and fructosamine levels however ART only partially decreased HOMA index compared with AT (ART: -25% vs AT: -54%, p<0.01). Mean blood pressure (AT: -3.6 mmHg vs ART: +0.6 mmHg, p<0.05) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) incremental areas during walking test (AT: -11% vs ART: +30%, p<0.001) decreased after AT while increased after ART. Adiponectin levels increased by 54% after AT while decreased by 13% after ART (p<0.0001) and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and monocyte chemoattractan protein-1 (MCP-1) levels significantly decreased in AT while increased in ART group. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with AT, ART similarly enhanced body weight loss but exerted less positive effects on insulin sensitivity and endothelial factors, adipokines and pro-inflammatory marker release.
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