Background The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and the C-reactive protein (CRP) are markers of systemic inflammatory response, which have been associated with the prognosis of multiple malignancies, but their relationships with oncologic outcomes of nonâmuscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) have not been well studied yet. Patients and methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 1,117 patients with NMIBC who underwent a transurethral resection of the bladder. Univariable and multivariable competing risk regression models were used to assess the association of preoperative NLR and CRP with disease recurrence and progression to muscle-invasive disease. The median follow-up was 64 months. Results In total, 360 patients (32.2%) had a high NLR (â¥2.5) and 145 (13.0%) had a high CRP (â¥5Â mg/l). On multivariable analyses, a high NLR was associated with both disease recurrence (subhazard ratio [SHR] = 1.27, P = 0.013) and progression (SHR = 1.72, P = 0.007), and high CRP was associated with disease progression (SHR = 1.72, P = 0.031). Adding NLR and CRP to the multivariable model predicting disease progression lead to a relevant change in discrimination (+2.0%). In a subgroup analysis of 300 patients treated with bacillus Calmette-Guerin, both high NLR and high CRP were associated with disease progression (SHR = 2.80, P = 0.026 and SHR = 3.51, P = 0.021, respectively), and NLR was associated with disease recurrence (SHR = 1.46, P = 0.046). There was also an increase in the discrimination of the model predicting progression after bacillus Calmette-Guerin following the inclusion of both markers (+2.4%). Conclusion In patients with NMIBC, markers of systemic inflammation response are associated with disease recurrence and progression. The inclusion of such markers in prognostic models does enhance their accuracy.
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