U937 cell clones which sustain efficient or poor replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) (referred to herein as plus clones and minus clones, respectively) have been previously described. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (vitamin D3) potently induced HIV-1 replication and proviral DNA accumulation in minus clones but not in plus clones. Vitamin D3 did not induce NF-KB activation but selectively upregulated CXCR4 expression in minus clones. The CXCR4 ligand stromal-cell derived factor-1 induced Ca2+ fluxes and inhibited both constitutive and vitamin D3-enhanced HIV replication in minus clones.
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