The introduction of novel imaging approaches for recurrent prostate cancer (PC) has paved the way for the use of nonsystemic approaches in patients with recurrent disease. While use of surgery or radiotherapy is standard for men with nodal or bone recurrence only, there are no significant data on the possible curative role of surgery for pulmonary metastases. We aimed to assess the efficacy of lung resection in patients with isolated pulmonary recurrence after radical prostatectomy (RP) for clinically localized PC. Overall, nine patients with biochemical recurrence after RP and either single (n=4) or multiple (n=5) pulmonary uptake spots on fluorodeoxyglugose, choline, or prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography/computed tomography underwent a total of 20 lung resections between 2011 and 2017 at our institution. No postoperative complications occurred. After lung resection, seven of the nine patients experienced a biochemical response (defined as prostate-specific antigen <0.2ng/ml at 40d after surgery). All patients except for one were free of clinical recurrence (CR) at median follow-up of 23mo. One patient experienced CR and received androgen deprivation therapy at the time of bone recurrence. Although larger prospective studies are needed, our series demonstrates that surgical resection of isolated pulmonary metastases is safe and effective in selected PC patients with recurrent disease.
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