Objective: Patients undergoing transapical cardiac procedure are a minority of cardiac surgery patients but represent a challenge for cardiac anesthesiologists because they generally are older and have more comorbidities than do open heart cardiac surgery patients. The aims of this study were to describe the anesthetic experience with transapical procedures in a single high-volume center and to analyze the most critical aspects for anesthetic management. Design: Retrospective study. Setting: IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy. Participants: All patients undergoing a cardiac transapical procedure from January 2009 to April 2018 were included in this case series. Interventions: Patients were managed by a multidisciplinary heart team. The perioperative anesthetic approach and hemodynamic management were consistent and performed by a group of trained cardiac anesthesiologists. Measurements and Main Results: The study population comprised 143 patients: 81 (57%) underwent an aortic valve procedure, 60 (42%) a mitral valve intervention, 1 patient underwent a procedure involving both the aortic and mitral valves, and 1 patient underwent correction of a congenital heart defect. A major intraoperative complication occurred in 5 (3.5%) patients, the procedure was not technically feasible because of unsuitable anatomy in 3 patients, and conversion to open heart surgery was needed in 2 patients. All patients were admitted to the intensive care unit. Intensive care unit stay was 1 (1-3) days, and hospital stay was 6 (5-8) days. Hospital survival was 94%. Conclusions: Patients undergoing transapical cardiac procedures are a minority of cardiac surgery patients, but represent a high-risk population. A patient-tailored anesthetic approach, in the context of the therapeutic strategy shared by the heart team, is crucial to improve outcomes.
Anesthesiologic Management of Patients Undergoing Cardiac Transapical Procedures: Which Challenges in the Modern Era? / Pieri, Marina; De Luca, Monica; Gerli, Chiara; Crivellari, Martina; Buzzatti, Nicola; Denti, Paolo; Stamelos, Matthaios; Zangrillo, Alberto; Landoni, Giovanni; Monaco, Fabrizio. - In: JOURNAL OF CARDIOTHORACIC AND VASCULAR ANESTHESIA. - ISSN 1053-0770. - 33:7(2019), pp. 1883-1889. [10.1053/j.jvca.2018.10.039]