The ribonuclease DIS3 is one of the most frequently mutated genes in the hematological cancer multiple myeloma, yet the basis of its tumor suppressor function in this disease remains unclear. Herein, exploiting the TCGA dataset, we found that DIS3 plays a prominent role in the DNA damage response. DIS3 inactivation causes genomic instability by increasing mutational load, and a pervasive accumulation of DNA:RNA hybrids that induces genomic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). DNA:RNA hybrid accumulation also prevents binding of the homologous recombination (HR) machinery to double-strand breaks, hampering DSB repair. DIS3-inactivated cells become sensitive to PARP inhibitors, suggestive of a defect in homologous recombination repair. Accordingly, multiple myeloma patient cells mutated for DIS3 harbor an increased mutational burden and a pervasive overexpression of pro-inflammatory interferon, correlating with the accumulation of DNA:RNA hybrids. We propose DIS3 loss in myeloma to be a driving force for tumorigenesis via DNA:RNA hybrid-dependent enhanced genome instability and increased mutational rate. At the same time, DIS3 loss represents a liability that might be therapeutically exploited in patients whose cancer cells harbor DIS3 mutations.

Loss of ribonuclease DIS3 hampers genome integrity in myeloma by disrupting DNA:RNA hybrid metabolism

Gritti I.;Mazza D.;Tonon G.
2022

Abstract

The ribonuclease DIS3 is one of the most frequently mutated genes in the hematological cancer multiple myeloma, yet the basis of its tumor suppressor function in this disease remains unclear. Herein, exploiting the TCGA dataset, we found that DIS3 plays a prominent role in the DNA damage response. DIS3 inactivation causes genomic instability by increasing mutational load, and a pervasive accumulation of DNA:RNA hybrids that induces genomic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). DNA:RNA hybrid accumulation also prevents binding of the homologous recombination (HR) machinery to double-strand breaks, hampering DSB repair. DIS3-inactivated cells become sensitive to PARP inhibitors, suggestive of a defect in homologous recombination repair. Accordingly, multiple myeloma patient cells mutated for DIS3 harbor an increased mutational burden and a pervasive overexpression of pro-inflammatory interferon, correlating with the accumulation of DNA:RNA hybrids. We propose DIS3 loss in myeloma to be a driving force for tumorigenesis via DNA:RNA hybrid-dependent enhanced genome instability and increased mutational rate. At the same time, DIS3 loss represents a liability that might be therapeutically exploited in patients whose cancer cells harbor DIS3 mutations.
DNA damage repair
DNA:RNA Hybrids
R-loops
interferon
multiple myeloma
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11768/132932
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