Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory neurodegenerative disorder of the central nervous system (CNS). The migration of immune cells into the CNS is essential for its development, and plasma membrane molecules play an important role in triggering and maintaining the inflammation. We previously identified ninjurin2, a plasma membrane protein encoded by NINJ2 gene, as involved in the occurrence of relapse under Interferon-beta treatment in MS patients. The aim of the present study was to investigate the involvement of NINJ2 in inflammatory conditions and in the migration of monocytes through the blood-brain barrier (BBB). We observed that NINJ2 is downregulated in monocytes and in THP-1 cells after stimulation with the pro-inflammatory cytokine LPS, while in hCMEC/D3 cells, which represent a surrogate of the BBB, LPS stimulation increases its expression. We set up a transmigration assay using an hCMEC/D3 transwell-based model, finding a higher transmigration rate of monocytes from MS subjects compared to healthy controls (HCs) in the case of an activated hCMEC/D3 monolayer. Moreover, a positive correlation between NINJ2 expression in monocytes and monocyte migration rate was observed. Overall, our results suggest that ninjurin2 could be involved in the transmigration of immune cells into the CNS in pro-inflammatory conditions. Further experiments are needed to elucidate the exact molecular mechanisms.

Involvement of NINJ2 Protein in Inflammation and Blood-Brain Barrier Transmigration of Monocytes in Multiple Sclerosis

Mascia, Elisabetta;Santoro, Silvia;Ferrè, Laura;Giordano, Antonino;Cannizzaro, Miryam;Filippi, Massimo;
2022-01-01

Abstract

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory neurodegenerative disorder of the central nervous system (CNS). The migration of immune cells into the CNS is essential for its development, and plasma membrane molecules play an important role in triggering and maintaining the inflammation. We previously identified ninjurin2, a plasma membrane protein encoded by NINJ2 gene, as involved in the occurrence of relapse under Interferon-beta treatment in MS patients. The aim of the present study was to investigate the involvement of NINJ2 in inflammatory conditions and in the migration of monocytes through the blood-brain barrier (BBB). We observed that NINJ2 is downregulated in monocytes and in THP-1 cells after stimulation with the pro-inflammatory cytokine LPS, while in hCMEC/D3 cells, which represent a surrogate of the BBB, LPS stimulation increases its expression. We set up a transmigration assay using an hCMEC/D3 transwell-based model, finding a higher transmigration rate of monocytes from MS subjects compared to healthy controls (HCs) in the case of an activated hCMEC/D3 monolayer. Moreover, a positive correlation between NINJ2 expression in monocytes and monocyte migration rate was observed. Overall, our results suggest that ninjurin2 could be involved in the transmigration of immune cells into the CNS in pro-inflammatory conditions. Further experiments are needed to elucidate the exact molecular mechanisms.
inflammation
multiple sclerosis
transmigration
Humans
Monocytes
Lipopolysaccharides
Inflammation
Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal
Blood-Brain Barrier
Multiple Sclerosis
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11768/134085
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