Background Multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) has demonstrated high diagnostic accuracy for clinically significant PCa (csPCa). However, the accuracy of this test in men that received a previous prostatic surgery is still controversial. We aimed at assessing the effect of previous prostatic surgery on the detection of csPCa in a tertiary referral center. Method We relied on a cohort of 311 men with a positive mpMRI (prostate imaging - reporting and data system [PI-RADS] >= 3) who underwent a targeted (TBx) plus concomitant systematic random biopsy (SBx) at a single tertiary referral center between 2017 and 2020. The study outcome was to compare the detection of csPCa (Gleason score >= 3 + 4) between the two groups (no previous prostate surgery [Group 1] vs. previous prostate surgery [Group 2]). Multivariable logistic regression analysis (MVA) was used to assess the relationship between previous prostate surgery and the detection of csPCa at TBx, after taking into account potential clinical confounders. Results Overall, 24 (8%) patients received a previous prostate surgery before undergoing mpMRI. Median prostate-specific antigen density was 0.15 versus 0.08 ng/ml/cc, in Group 1 versus 2, respectively. The most frequent finding at mpMRI was in Group 1 versus 2, PI-RADS 4 (55%) versus PI-RADS 3 and 4 (42% each). The majority of patients were biopsy naive in both Groups 1 (66%) and 2 (71%). The overall detection of csPCa in Group 1 versus 2 was 83% versus 75%, respectively. Differently, the detection of csPCa at TBx in Groups 1 versus 2 was 76% versus 71%, respectively. At MVA, previous prostate surgery (odds ratio: 0.65; p = 0.02) was significantly associated with lower csPCa detection at TBx, after accounting for potential confounders. Conclusion The presence of previous prostate surgery significantly decreases the accuracy of mpMRI in detecting csPCa. These results should be taken into account when assessing patients with a history of prostatic surgery and a suspicious lesion at mpMRI, to better select those who might avoid an unnecessary biopsy.
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