Despite the improvements, spinal cord ischemia is still one of the major and most dramatic potential complications after thoracic and thoracoabdominal aortic treatments, for both open and endovascular procedures. A multimodal approach, which includes several intraoperative and postoperative maneuvers, may contribute to optimizing the spinal cord tolerance to ischemia. The aim of this article is to report the different techniques employed to improve spinal cord perfusion, directly and indirectly through collateral circulation.
Favia N.;Santoro A.;Chiesa R.
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