Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether, compared to pediatric healthy controls (HCs), the glymphatic system is impaired in pediatric multiple sclerosis (MS) patients according to their cognitive status, and to assess its association with clinical disability and MRI measures of brain structural damage. Methods: Sixty-five pediatric MS patients (females = 62%; median age = 15.5 [interquartile range, IQR = 14.5;17.0] years) and 23 age- and sex-matched HCs (females = 44%; median age = 14.1 [IQR = 11.8;16.2] years) underwent neurological, neuropsychological and 3.0 Tesla MRI assessment, including conventional and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). We calculated the diffusion along the perivascular space (DTI-ALPS) index, a proxy of glymphatic function. Cognitive impairment (Co-I) was defined as impairment in at least 2 cognitive domains. Results: No significant differences in DTI-ALPS index were found between HCs and cognitively preserved (Co-P) pediatric MS patients (estimated mean difference [EMD] = -0.002 [95% confidence interval = -0.069; 0.065], FDR-p = 0.956). Compared to HCs and Co-P patients, Co-I pediatric MS patients (n = 20) showed significantly lower DTI-ALPS index (EMD = -0.136 [95% confidence interval = -0.214; -0.058], FDR-p ≤ 0.004). In HCs, no associations were observed between DTI-ALPS index and normalized brain, cortical and thalamic volumes, and normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) (FDR-p ≥ 0.348). In pediatric MS patients, higher brain WM lesion volume (LV), higher NAWM MD, lower normalized thalamic volume, and lower NAWM FA were associated with lower DTI-ALPS index (FDR-p ≤ 0.016). Random Forest selected lower DTI-ALPS index (relative importance [RI] = 100%), higher brain WM LV (RI = 59.5%) NAWM MD (RI = 57.1%) and intelligence quotient (RI = 51.3%) as informative predictors of cognitive impairment (out-of-bag area under the curve = 0.762). Interpretation: Glymphatic system dysfunction occurs in pediatric MS, is associated with brain focal lesions, irreversible tissue loss accumulation and cognitive impairment. ANN NEUROL 2024.

Cognitive Impairment Is Related to Glymphatic System Dysfunction in Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis / Margoni, Monica; Pagani, Elisabetta; Meani, Alessandro; Preziosa, Paolo; Mistri, Damiano; Gueye, Mor; Moiola, Lucia; Filippi, Massimo; Rocca, Maria Assunta. - In: ANNALS OF NEUROLOGY. - ISSN 0364-5134. - (In corso di stampa). [10.1002/ana.26911]

Cognitive Impairment Is Related to Glymphatic System Dysfunction in Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis

Preziosa, Paolo;Mistri, Damiano;Gueye, Mor;Filippi, Massimo
Penultimo
;
Rocca, Maria Assunta
Ultimo
In corso di stampa

Abstract

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether, compared to pediatric healthy controls (HCs), the glymphatic system is impaired in pediatric multiple sclerosis (MS) patients according to their cognitive status, and to assess its association with clinical disability and MRI measures of brain structural damage. Methods: Sixty-five pediatric MS patients (females = 62%; median age = 15.5 [interquartile range, IQR = 14.5;17.0] years) and 23 age- and sex-matched HCs (females = 44%; median age = 14.1 [IQR = 11.8;16.2] years) underwent neurological, neuropsychological and 3.0 Tesla MRI assessment, including conventional and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). We calculated the diffusion along the perivascular space (DTI-ALPS) index, a proxy of glymphatic function. Cognitive impairment (Co-I) was defined as impairment in at least 2 cognitive domains. Results: No significant differences in DTI-ALPS index were found between HCs and cognitively preserved (Co-P) pediatric MS patients (estimated mean difference [EMD] = -0.002 [95% confidence interval = -0.069; 0.065], FDR-p = 0.956). Compared to HCs and Co-P patients, Co-I pediatric MS patients (n = 20) showed significantly lower DTI-ALPS index (EMD = -0.136 [95% confidence interval = -0.214; -0.058], FDR-p ≤ 0.004). In HCs, no associations were observed between DTI-ALPS index and normalized brain, cortical and thalamic volumes, and normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) (FDR-p ≥ 0.348). In pediatric MS patients, higher brain WM lesion volume (LV), higher NAWM MD, lower normalized thalamic volume, and lower NAWM FA were associated with lower DTI-ALPS index (FDR-p ≤ 0.016). Random Forest selected lower DTI-ALPS index (relative importance [RI] = 100%), higher brain WM LV (RI = 59.5%) NAWM MD (RI = 57.1%) and intelligence quotient (RI = 51.3%) as informative predictors of cognitive impairment (out-of-bag area under the curve = 0.762). Interpretation: Glymphatic system dysfunction occurs in pediatric MS, is associated with brain focal lesions, irreversible tissue loss accumulation and cognitive impairment. ANN NEUROL 2024.
In corso di stampa
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
Annals of Neurology - 2024 - Margoni.pdf

accesso aperto

Tipologia: PDF editoriale (versione pubblicata dall'editore)
Licenza: Creative commons
Dimensione 4.15 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
4.15 MB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11768/158761
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 0
  • Scopus 1
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? ND
social impact