Objective: Multiple sclerosis (MS) has a complex pathobiology, with genetic and environmental factors being crucial players. Understanding the mechanisms underlying heterogeneity in disease activity is crucial for tailored treatment. We explored the impact of DNA methylation, a key mechanism in the genetics-environment interplay, on disease activity in MS. Methods: Peripheral immune methylome profiling using Illumina Infinium MethylationEPIC BeadChips was conducted on 249 untreated relapsing-remitting MS patients, sampled at the start of disease-modifying treatment (DMT). A differential methylation analysis compared patients with evidence of disease activity (EDA) to those with no evidence of disease activity (NEDA) over 2 years from DMT start. Utilizing causal inference testing (CIT) and Mendelian randomization (MR), we sought to elucidate the relationships between DNA methylation, gene expression, genetic variation, and disease activity. Results: Four differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were identified between EDA and NEDA. Examining the influence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 923 variants were found to account for the observed differences in the 4 DMRs. Importantly, 3 out of the 923 SNPs, affecting DNA methylation in a DMR linked to the anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) gene, were associated with disease activity risk in an independent cohort of 1,408 MS patients. CIT and MR demonstrated that DNA methylation in AMH acts as a mediator for the genetic risk of disease activity. Interpretation: This study uncovered a novel molecular pathway implicating the interaction between DNA methylation and genetic variation in the risk of disease activity in MS, emphasizing the role of sex hormones, particularly the AMH, in MS pathobiology. ANN NEUROL 2024.

DNA Methylation in the Anti-Mullerian Hormone Gene and the Risk of Disease Activity in Multiple Sclerosis / Giordano, Antonino; Pignolet, Béatrice; Mascia, Elisabetta; Clarelli, Ferdinando; Sorosina, Melissa; Misra, Kaalindi; Bucciarelli, Florence; Ferrè, Laura; Moiola, Lucia; Liblau, Roland; Filippi, Massimo; Esposito, Federica. - In: ANNALS OF NEUROLOGY. - ISSN 0364-5134. - (2024). [10.1002/ana.26959]

DNA Methylation in the Anti-Mullerian Hormone Gene and the Risk of Disease Activity in Multiple Sclerosis

Giordano, Antonino
Primo
;
Mascia, Elisabetta;Misra, Kaalindi;Ferrè, Laura;Filippi, Massimo
Penultimo
;
2024-01-01

Abstract

Objective: Multiple sclerosis (MS) has a complex pathobiology, with genetic and environmental factors being crucial players. Understanding the mechanisms underlying heterogeneity in disease activity is crucial for tailored treatment. We explored the impact of DNA methylation, a key mechanism in the genetics-environment interplay, on disease activity in MS. Methods: Peripheral immune methylome profiling using Illumina Infinium MethylationEPIC BeadChips was conducted on 249 untreated relapsing-remitting MS patients, sampled at the start of disease-modifying treatment (DMT). A differential methylation analysis compared patients with evidence of disease activity (EDA) to those with no evidence of disease activity (NEDA) over 2 years from DMT start. Utilizing causal inference testing (CIT) and Mendelian randomization (MR), we sought to elucidate the relationships between DNA methylation, gene expression, genetic variation, and disease activity. Results: Four differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were identified between EDA and NEDA. Examining the influence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 923 variants were found to account for the observed differences in the 4 DMRs. Importantly, 3 out of the 923 SNPs, affecting DNA methylation in a DMR linked to the anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) gene, were associated with disease activity risk in an independent cohort of 1,408 MS patients. CIT and MR demonstrated that DNA methylation in AMH acts as a mediator for the genetic risk of disease activity. Interpretation: This study uncovered a novel molecular pathway implicating the interaction between DNA methylation and genetic variation in the risk of disease activity in MS, emphasizing the role of sex hormones, particularly the AMH, in MS pathobiology. ANN NEUROL 2024.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11768/160784
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